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2010-09-22 03:32:35

Anthropology terms
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  1. Anthropology
    study of humans
  2. Archaeology
    study of artifacts/tools/people of past life style
  3. Biocultural approach
    studying humans looking at interactions between biology and culture in evolutionary adaptation.
  4. Biological anthropology
    studies the biological evolution of human variations of past and present

    genetics, ecology, primates, evolution
  5. Cultural Anthropology
    also called social anthropology, deals with human cultures and society
  6. forensic anthropology
    "applied anthropology", helps solve contemporary problems which deals with legal settings (crimes, cause of death, etc)
  7. linguistic anthropology
    study of how language is used in various social contexts
  8. sociolinguistics
    study of relationship between language and social factors, such as class, ethnicity, sex
  9. paleoanthropology
    study of human evolution through fossil records
  10. osteology
    study of the skeleton and its functions
  11. human biology
    study of human growth, development, adaptations and human genetics
  12. primatology
    study of primates
  13. scientific method
    method that involves observation, hypothesis, and theories to test it out
  14. Science
    way of acquiring knowledge through observations of phenomena
  15. Carl Linnaeus
    Taxonomy, classification system (binomial nomenclature)
  16. Taxonomy
    classification of organisms into groups based on similarities
  17. Thomas Malthus
    competition for resources; human will competes for resources, population size is limited by food supply -> struggle for survival
  18. Alfred Wallace
    proposed theory of evolution due to natural selection
  19. Darwin
    theory of evolution, natural selection
  20. Lamarck
    proposed that evolution resulted from inheritance of acquired characteristics
  21. Evolution
    change in allele frequency over time
  22. Natural selection
    natural process resulting in evolution of organisms best adapted to environment; survival of the fittest

    traits make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce; becomes more common in population over successful generations
  23. Adaptive radiation
    diversification of species into separate forms that each adapt to occupy a specific environmental niche
  24. Mendel
    experimented with breeding garden peas
  25. Mendelian inheritance
    manner in which genes and traits are passed down from parents to offsprings

    ex: autosomal dominance, autosomal recessive, sex-linked genes
  26. Heredity
    passing of traits from parents to offsprings
  27. genotype
    genetic composition (specific allele makeup)

    AA, Aa, aa, etc..
  28. phenotype
    physical expression of genotype; what an organism looks like because of interactions of genotype

    could also be affected by environment
  29. Law of Segregation
    each pair of allele seperate during gamete formation; each gamete contains one allele from each pair (of parents)
  30. Law of Independent
    gametes get random pairs of genes from each parents
  31. Heterozygous
    two different alleles
  32. Homozygous
    having identical alleles
  33. Modern synthesis
    union of ideas from several biological specialties which provides a widely accepted account of evolution
  34. DNA
    nucleic acid which contains genetic instructions for development of living organisms; blueprint of life
  35. Mitchondria
    cellular respiration; produces ATP
  36. Chromosomes
    strings of genetic material made of DNA and protein; humans contain 46 (23 pairs)
  37. Homologous
    having same evolutionary origin, but not necessary same function; same ancestry

    ie: wings of a bat and arm of a man
  38. Nucleus
    center of a cell containing DNA and RNA
  39. Autosomes
    chromosome that are not sex cells

    ie: humans have 22 pairs of autosomes, with last pair being sex cells
  40. sex chromosomes
    chromosome that determines sex of individual

    females = xx, males = xy
  41. gene
    basic unit of heredity of living organism; contains information to build and maintain organism's cells
  42. Allele
    variation of gene located at specific locus of chromosome; can be hetero or homo
  43. Locus
    location of gene on chromosome
  44. Polygenic inheritance
    several gene pairs affect the trait; also influenced from environment

    ie: skin color, eye color, height, etc.
  45. Pleiotropy
    one gene affects multiple traits

    ie: Phenylketonuria (PKU), causes mental retardation, affect coloration of hair and skin
  46. Replication
    occurs in nucleus, production of somatic cells and sex cells
  47. Protein synthesis
    complex chemicals which have 2 different classes; either structural (body tissues) or regulatory (enzymes and hormones)
  48. Regulation
    regulate biologicall processes in body; turns genes OFF or ON
  49. Meiosis
    creates haploid cells = half set of chromosomes

    (occurs in female ovaries, 1 egg/menstrual cycle)
  50. Mitosis
    production of identical somatic cells; creates diploid cells = full set of chromosomes

    ie: how single cell becomes organism
  51. Gametes
    sex cells that carry the genes donated by each parent
  52. Somatic cells
    (diploids), is NOT involved in reproduction

    example: helps the body heal
  53. Haploid
    half of set of chromosomes
  54. Diploid
    full set of chromosomes
  55. Recombination
    occurs in meiosis; creates a "novel" combination of genetic material

    reason as to why siblings can look very different
  56. Structural proteins
    protein that contributes to cell or tissue structures
  57. Regulatory proteins
    regulates gene expressions

    example: controls our height, production of lactase, etc.
  58. Genome
    full DNA sequence of an organism
  59. Balanced polymorphism
    equilibrium of two or more alleles that remains constant over periods of time
  60. Gene flow
    exchange of genetic material (alleles) between populations; NOT SAME AS MIGRATION

    • Within a population = INCREASE gene flow (more variety between two different populations) (ex: Californians breeding together)
    • Between population = DECREASE gene flow (less variety between two populations) (ex: Californians breeding with Canadians)
  61. Genetic Drift
    random event which alters allele frequencies, such as plagues, famine, war

  62. Founder Effect
    formation of new population from few individuals; the small group exclusively contributes to gene pool

    ex: amish group
  63. Mutation
    random change in gene; can happen in any cell
  64. Point mutation
    change in a single base of gene (such as eye color)

    ex: can cause the natural brown eyes to be diluted to blue eyes
  65. Frameshift mutation
    change of insertion or deletion of 1 or more bases

    ex: Huntington's Disease
  66. x-linked disorders
    females are carriers, disease that "skips" generations

    males = susceptible to disorders, because of only 1 x

    ex: Hemophilia, absence of clotting factor protein in blood causes excessive bleeding; "royal disease" - queen victoria had it
  67. Sickel-cell anemia
    genetic disorder that affects blood cell shape; body has reduced capacity to transport oxygen

    result of a mutation (1 amino acid sub. in hemoglobin)
  68. Stabilizing Selection
    favors anti-extremes, average is favored

    ex: human birth weight (too fat or too light = bad)
  69. Directional Selection
    one extreme form of a trait is favored; better suited for an environment, allele frequency shifts

    ex: over millions of years, brain size increases
  70. Balancing Selection
    multiple alleles are effected, favors heterozygote forms; maintains balanced polymorphism

    ex: sickle-cell anemia
  71. Endogamy
    marriage within one's tribe or group
  72. Biocultural evolution
    evolution process that is result of culture's interaction with biology throughout human evolutionary history
  73. Lactose intolerance
    unable to produce lactase enzyme to digest lactose; become intolerant of it