CNS.csv

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Author:
elplute
ID:
36560
Filename:
CNS.csv
Updated:
2010-09-22 09:06:18
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CNS
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Description:
Central Nervous System
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  1. gray matter
    consists of cell bodies; unmyelinated
  2. white matter
    consists of axons; myelinated; white color comes from the lipid content of the myelin
  3. cortex
    gray matter of the CNS; found at the surface
  4. nucleus
    gray matter of the CNS; found below the surface (below the cortex)
  5. ganglia
    gray matter of the PNS
  6. nerve
    white matter of the PNS
  7. commissure
    a tract that crosses to the contralateral side of the body
  8. tract
    white matter of the CNS
  9. fasciculus
    white matter of the CNS
  10. path
    white matter of the CNS
  11. column
    white matter of the CNS
  12. peduncle
    white matter of the CNS
  13. afferent
    sensory input
  14. efferent
    motor output
  15. major anatomical planes
    coronal; sagittal; horizontal
  16. 7 divisions of the CNS
    cerebrum; diencephalon; midbrain; pons; medulla oblungata; cerebellum; spinal cord
  17. diencephalon
    consists of the thalamus and the hypothalamus
  18. corpus callosum
    connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain
  19. brainstem
    consists of the midbrain and pons and medulla
  20. fissures
    deep grooves that separate major areas of the brain
  21. transverse fissure
    separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
  22. longitudinal fissure
    separates the cerebral hemispheres
  23. sulci
    grooves on the surface of the brain
  24. gyri
    twisted ridges between the sulci
  25. precentral gyrus
    found anterior to the central sulcus
  26. postcentral gyrus
    found posterior to the central sulcus
  27. basal ganglia
    includes the caudate and putamen and globus pallidus; defines a circuit of discrete structures involved in motor function
  28. parito-occipital sulcus
    separates the parietal/temporal lobes from the occipital lobe
  29. lateral sulcus
    separates the temporal from the frontal/parietal lobes
  30. insular cortex
    found deep within the lateral sulcus; between the parietal & frontal & temporal lobes
  31. operculum
    portion of the brain covering the insular cortex; made up of the gray matter surrounding the lateral sulcus
  32. caudate nucleus
    a c-shaped structure; part of the basal ganglia; found against the wall of the lateral ventricle; involved in learning and memory
  33. putamen
    a round structure; part of the basal ganglia; found in conjunction with the caudate nucleus
  34. internal capsule
    an area of white matter in the brain that contains both ascending and descending axons
  35. global pallidus
    part of the basal ganglia; found deep to the putamen
  36. lentiform nucleus
    made up of the putamen and globus pallidus within the basal ganglia
  37. striatum
    "also called the striate nucleus; ""striped"" because the internal capsule divides it into the caudate and putamen"
  38. three functional categories of the cerebral cortex
    sensory areas; motor areas; association areas
  39. somatotopic organization
    a sensory or motor map of the body in the brain
  40. homonculus
    a somatotopic representation of the brain's devotion to body regions
  41. location of primary somatosensory cortex
    postcentral gyrus
  42. location of primary motor cortex
    precentral gyrus
  43. location of primary visual cortex
    occipital lobe
  44. location of primary auditory cortex
    the superior part of the temporal lobe near the lateral cerebral sulcus
  45. location of primary gustatory cortex
    base of the postcentral gyrus
  46. somatosensory association areas
    responsible for integration and interpretation of sensory information
  47. visual association areas
    responsible for identification and localization of an object in a visual field
  48. premotor cortex areas
    responsible for the planning of voluntary movements; utilizes processed sensory information
  49. expressive aphasia
    involves damage to Broca's area; involves an inability to produce spoken language; ability to understand language is unharmed
  50. perceptive aphasia
    involves damage to Wernicke's area; involves an inability to comprehend and produce sensical language; ability to form words and sounds is unharmed
  51. Broca's area
    found just anterior to the premotor cortex; usually on the left hemisphere
  52. Wernicke's area
    found in the superior part of the anterior central gyrus; involved in language processing
  53. visual cortices
    primary visual cortex; association visual cortices
  54. functional systems of the CNS
    olfactory; gustatory; auditory; visual; somatosensory
  55. protection of the CNS
    involves the scalp; the skull; the meninges; and CSF
  56. meninges
    system of membranes that envelop the CNS; consists of the dura mater and the arachnoid mater and the pia mater
  57. dura mater
    the outer membranous layer of the CNS; closely associated with the skull; tough and durable layer; composed of the periosteal and meingeal layers
  58. arachnoid mater
    the middle membranous layer of the CNS; closely associated with the dura mater; thin membrane with a web-like appearance; provides cushioning
  59. pia mater
    the inner membranous layer of the CNS; closely associated with the brain; very thin and delicate membrane
  60. periosteal layer
    the superficial layer of the dura mater
  61. meningeal layer
    the deep layer of the dura mater; splits from the periosteal layer to form the tentorium cerebelli and the falx cerebri
  62. dural sinuses
    spaces formed by separation of the two layers of dura; filled with venous blood
  63. superior sagittal sinus
    a dural sinus formed at the most superior part of the brain between the two hemispheres
  64. tentorium cerebelli
    a projection of the meningeal layer of the dura mater; separates the occipital lobes from the cerebrum in a horizontal plane
  65. falx cerebri
    a projection of the meningeal layer of the dura mater; separates the two hemispheres of the brain in a sagittal plane
  66. meningeal space
    spaces and potential spaces formed between the meninges of the CNS
  67. epidural space
    the potential space between the bone and the dura mater
  68. subdural space
    the potential space between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
  69. subarachnoid space
    the fluid-filled space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater
  70. hematomas
    pooling of blood outside of the blood vessels
  71. epidural hematomas
    pooling of blood between the skull and the dura mater; occurs after traumatic injury to the middle meningeal artery between the bone and the dura mater; acute presentation often associated with a lurid period; more immediately dangerous type of intracranial hematoma
  72. subdural hematomas
    pooling of blood between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater; occurs after traumatic injury to the vein between the brain and the dura; less immediately dangerous but often associated with more serious brain injuries than epidural hematomas
  73. ventricles
    a system of CSF-containing structures in the brain
  74. septum pellucidum
    a membrane in the sagittal plane that separates the lateral ventricles
  75. lateral ventricles
    part of the ventricular system; associated with the cerebrum
  76. third ventricle
    part of the ventricular system; assocated with the diencephalon
  77. fourth ventricle
    part of the ventricular system; associated with the cerebellum and pons and medulla
  78. cerebral aqueduct
    CSF-filled space that connects the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle
  79. central canal
    CSF-filled space that connects the fourth ventricle with the CSF-containing space surrounding the spinal cord
  80. interventricular foramen
    CSF-filled space connecting the lateral ventricals with the third ventricle
  81. lateral and median apertures
    CSF-filled space connecting the fourth ventricle with the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain
  82. choroid plexus
    specialized vasculature within the ventricular system that produces CSF
  83. CSF flow
    lateral ventricles -> intraventricular foramen -> third ventricle -> cerebral aqueduct -> fourth ventricle -> central canal and lateral/medial apertures ->spinal cord and subarachnoid space
  84. causes of hydrocephalus
    overproduction of CSF; obstructed flow of CSF; inadequate resorption of CSF
  85. arachnoid granulations
    projections of the arachnoid mater into the dura mater; resorb CSF
  86. blood supply to brain
    primarily supplied through the circle of Willis; pattern of anastomoses varies greatly from person to person
  87. anastomoses
    network/branching of blood vessels
  88. major arteries of the brain
    anterior cerebral arteries; anterior communicating artery; internal carotid arteries; middle cerebral arteries; posterior cerebral arteries; posterior communicating arteries; basilar artery
  89. autonomic nervous system
    part of the peripheral nervous system that involves involuntary control of visceral functions
  90. somatic nervous system
    part of the peripheral nervous system that involves voluntary control of skeletal muscles
  91. sympathetic nervous system
    part of the autonomic nervous system; involves stimulation of resting body functions such as digestion
  92. parasympathetic nervous system
    "part of the autonomic nervous system; involves stimulation of the ""fight-or-flight"" response"
  93. circle of Willis
    a circle of arteries that provides the primary blood source to the brain; redundant to minimize damage due to arterial blockage or damage

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