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2010-09-22 09:13:52
midbrain spinal nerves cranial nerves pons medulla brain stem

Midbrain & Spinal/Cranial Nerves
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  1. spinal nerve order
  2. denticulate ligaments
    projections of pia mater that connect to the dura and arachnoid mater; teeth-like; stabilize spinal cord; only easily separable section of pia mater
  3. conus medullaris
    the distal end of the spinal cord; found near the L1 or L2 vertebrae in most humans
  4. cauda equina
    """horse's tail;"" consists of spinal nerves and roots that project below the end of spinal neurons"
  5. filum terminale
    fibrous tissue that extends below the conus medullaris; consists of an upper section -- the internum -- that is made up of pia mater and a lower section -- the externum -- that is closely associated with dura mater
  6. cervical enlargement
    a lateral enlargement of the spinal cord; area in which the nerves of the brachial plexus originate
  7. lumbosacral enlargement
    a lateral enlargement of the spinal cord; area in which the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus originate
  8. gray matter of the spinal cord
    contains organized laminas (layers of nerve cells); involves symmetrical halves connected by a commissure; contains dorsal and ventral columns; thoracic and upper lumbar regions also contain interomediolateral projections
  9. white matter of the spinal cord
    surround the gray matter; consists of dorsal and lateral and ventral columns; contains distinct axonal pathways (tracts)
  10. function of the dorsal horn
    receives sensory information
  11. function of the ventral horn
    contains motor neurons
  12. function of the lateral horn
    found primarily in the thoracic region of the spinal cord; mediates sympathetic innervation
  13. laminae
    layers of nerve cells found in the gray matter of the spinal cord
  14. dorsal funiculus
    contains ascending axons from the dorsal column-medial lemniscus system
  15. lateral funiculus
    contains descending axons from the lateral corticospinal tract
  16. ventral funiculus
    contains ascending axons from the spinothalamic/anterolateral system
  17. dorsolateral fasciculus
    part of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord; involved in the pain pathway; made up of nerve bodies at the periphery of the spinal cord
  18. dorsal column-medial lemniscus system
    made up of ascending fibers; involved in transmitting information about fine touch and proprioception; dessucate in the lemniscal dessication of the medulla
  19. lateral corticospinal tract
    made up of descending fibers; involved in motor control; dessucate at the pyrimideal dessucation in the medulla
  20. spinothalamic or anterolateral system
    made up of ascending fibers; convey information about pain and temperatue; dessucate at the level of the spinal cord
  21. decussation of nerve fibers
    crossing of nerve fibers to the contralateral side of the body
  22. rootlets
    filaments projecting from the nerve bodies in the dorsal and ventral horns
  23. dorsal root
    formed from convergence of dorsal rootlets
  24. ventral root
    formed from convergence of ventral rootlets
  25. spinal ganglion
    collection of cell bodies; found on the dorsal root
  26. dorsal ramus
    innervates the muscles of the back; contains both motor and sensory information; smaller than the ventral rami; splits off after the convergence of dorsal and ventral roots
  27. ventral ramus
    innervates everything that is not innervated by the dorsal ramus; contains both motor and sensory information; larger than the dorsal ramus; splits off after the convergence of the dorsal and ventral roots
  28. cervical nerve blood supply
    vertebral artery; ascending cervical artery; deep cervical artery
  29. thoracic nerve blood supply
    intercostal artery
  30. lumbar nerve blood supply
    lumbar artery
  31. sacral nerve blood supply
    lateral sacral artery
  32. combined spinal nerve blood supply
    anterior spinal artery; posterior spinal arteries; medullary and radicular arteries
  33. intercostal arteries
    laterally-oriented arteries that supply the intercostal spaces between the ribs; have ventral and dorsal branches
  34. radicular arteries/veins
    small laterally-oriented vessels that follow filaments to nerve tissue
  35. spinal medullary arteries/veins
    laterally-oriented vessels that branch off to form the radicular arteries/veins
  36. lateral spinal arteries/veins
    vertically-oriented vessels that intersect with the spinal medullary arteries/veins and with the vertebral artery/vein
  37. red nucleus
    located in the midbrain; involved in motor coordination; receives crossed efferent fibers from the cerebellum; projects to the thalamus and the spinal cord via the rubrospinal tract
  38. inferior cerebellar peduncle
    found in the medulla oblangata; a stalk-like collection of nerve fibers that project to the cerebellum; contains fibers of the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and fibers from vestibular nuclei (among others)
  39. middle cerebellar peduncle
    found in the pons; the largest cerebellar peduncle; arise in the nuclei pontis and project to the cerebellum
  40. superior cerebellar peduncle
    found in the midbrain; contains efferent fibers from the cerebellum to the red nucleus; forms the upper lateral boundry of the fourth ventricle
  41. obex
    "the floor of the caudal medulla; chemoreceptor trigger zone with a thin blood-brain barrier that allows the brain to ""sample"" contents of the blood; located at the point at which the fourth ventricle narrows to become the central canal"
  42. base
    the bulk of the brainstem; found below the tegmentum
  43. tegmentum
    "found in the brainstem ventral to the fourth ventricle (""floor""); contains mostly motor neurons; involved in reflexive pathways; contains the cerebral aqueduct & periaqueductal gray & reticular formation & substantia nigra & red nucleus"
  44. tectum
    "found mainly in the midbrain dorsal to the fourth ventricle (""ceiling); contains mostly sensory neurons; involved in visual and auditory reflexes"
  45. path of the medial lemniscus through the brainstem
  46. path of the spinothalamic tract through the brainstem
  47. path of the corticospinal tract through the brainstem
  48. superior colliculi
    found in the tectum of the midbrain; receive visual as well as other types of information; involved in ocular reflexes
  49. inferior colliculi
    found in the tectum of the midbrain; receive auditory information; involved in sound localization and auditory reflexes
  50. morphology of the medulla
    the rostral medulla is wider than the caudal medulla; caudal medulla is more morphologically similar to the spinal cord
  51. periaqueductal gray
    found in the tegmentum in the midbrain; contains descending axon tracts; contains collections of opiod receptors; involved in pain suppression
  52. substantia nigra
    found in the midbrain; sends dopaminergic efferent fibers to the striatum; involved in motor control; degenerates in Parkinson's disease
  53. cranial nerve I
    Olfactory - sensory - involved in sense of smell
  54. cranial nerve II
    Optic - sensory - involved in visual input
  55. cranial nerve III
    Oculomotor - motor - involved in eye movements/pupil contraction
  56. cranial nerve IV
    Trochlear - motor - involved in eye movements
  57. cranial nerve V
    Trigeminal - sensory & motor - involved in somatic sensation from face/mouth cornea; innervates muscles of mastication
  58. cranial nerve VI
    Abducens - motor - involved in eye movements
  59. cranial nerve VII
    Facial - sensory & motor - controls muscles of facial expression; involved in taste
  60. cranial nerve VIII
    Auditory/vestibulocochlear - sensory - involved in hearing/sense of balance
  61. cranial nerve IX
    Glossopharyngeal - sensory & motor - involved in sensation from pharynx; taste; carotid baroreception
  62. cranial nerve X
    Vagus - sensory & motor - involved in autonomic function of the gut; sensation from pharynx; muscles of vocal cords; swallowing
  63. cranial nerve XI
    Spinal accessory - motor - controls shoulder & neck muscles
  64. cranial nerve XII
    Hypoglossal - motor - involved in movements of toungue
  65. types of cranial nerve nuclei
    somatic motor; brachial motor; visceral motor; general sensory; special sensory; visceral sensory
  66. somatic motor nuclei
    oculomotor (III); trochlear (IV); abducens (VI); hypoglossal (XII)
  67. brachial motor nuclei
    trigeminal motor (V); facial (VII); nucleus ambiguus (IX & X); spinal accessory (XI)
  68. visceral motor nuclei
    Edinger-Westphal (III); superior salivatory (VII); inferior salivatory (IX); dorsal motor (X); nucleus ambiguus (X)
  69. general sensory nuclei
    trigeminal sensory - mesencephalic (V & VII & IX & X); trigeminal sensory - principal (V & VII & IX & X); trigeminal sensory - spinal (V & VII & IX & X)
  70. special sensory nuclei
    vestibular (VIII); cochlear (VIII)
  71. visceral sensory nuclei
    nucleus of the solitary tract (VII & IX & X)
  72. cranial nerve nuclei of the midbrain
    oculomotor; trochlear; Edinger-Westphal; trigeminal sensory - mesencephalic
  73. cranial nerve nuclei of the pons
    abducens; trigeminal motor; facial; superior salivatory; inferior salivatory; trigeminal sensory - principal; vestibular; cochlear; nucleus of the solitary tract
  74. cranial nerve nuclei of the medulla
    hypoglossal; nucleus ambiguus; spinal accessory; dorsal motor; trigeminal sensory - spinal; vestibular; cochlear; nucleus of the solitary tract
  75. pathway of visual information from the eye to the brain
    eye -> optic nerve -> optic chiasm -> optic tract -> hypothalamus/pretectum/lateral geniculate nucleus/superior colliculi
  76. optic nerve
    carries visual information from a single eye to the optic chiasm
  77. optic chiasm
    area in which optic nerves partially cross; integrates information from both eyes and segragates information from the left and right visual fields
  78. lateral geniculate nucleus
    found in the thalamus; important relay center for visual information
  79. optic radiations
    project from the LGN to the ipsilateral side of the occipital lobe
  80. hypothalamus
    located below the thalamus and above the brainstem; important in regulation of metabolic functions; receives some light information to regulate circadian rhythm
  81. pretectum
    found between the midbrain and the thalamus; receives binocular information and outputs to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus
  82. Edinger-Westphal nucleus
    contains parasympathetic neurons that control pupil contraction in the eye
  83. conjugate movements
    eye movements are coordinated; light stimulus in one eye will lead to a response in both eyes
  84. medial longitudinal fasciculus
    a pair of crossed fiber tracts on either side of the brainstem; involved in coordination of eye movements
  85. anosmia
    loss of sense of smell
  86. olfactory pathway
    olfactory receptors -> olfactory nerve of the PNS -> olfactory bulb of the CNS; does not involve the thalamus; involves activation of amygdala (involved in emotion)
  87. gustatory pathway
    cranial nerves -> nucleus of the solitary tract -> VPM of thalamus -> insula and frontal cortex; interaction with amygdala and hypothalamus occurs at the level of the nucleus of the solitary tract
  88. principal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
    a group of neurons with cell bodies in the pons; receives sensory information about the face
  89. mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
    found in the midbrain; involved with proprioception of the face;
  90. spinal trigeminal nucleus
    found in the medulla; involved with pain/temperature information from the face
  91. trigeminal ganglia
    carry information from the trigenimal nerve to the principal nucleus of the trigeminal complex
  92. trigeminal lemniscus
    carries information form the principal nucleus of the trigeminal complex to the thalamus
  93. 3 zones of sensory information in trigeminal nucleus
    from top to bottom: optical; maxillary; mandibular
  94. parasympathetic crainal nerve system
  95. facial paralysis
    damage to lower motor nuclei leads to paralysis on one side of the face; damage to upper motor nuclei leads to paralysis on the lower half of one side of the face
  96. dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway in the brainstem
    involved in light tough; afferent fibers pass through the gracile and cuneate nuclei to the medial lemniscus and then to the thalamus
  97. gracile nucleus
    located in the medulla oblongata; involved in the dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract
  98. cuneate nucleus
    located in the medulla oblongata; involved in the dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract
  99. spinothalamic or anterolateral pathway in the brainstem
    involved in pain and temperature sensation; involves the spinal trigeminal nucleus
  100. lateral corticospinal pathway in the brainstem
    major descending motor system; involves projection through the red nucleus and trigeminal motor nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus
  101. vestibulospinal tract
    descending pathway; facilitates quick movements in response to changes in body position; contains crossed and uncrossed fibers; arise from the vestibular nuclei of the brain stem
  102. reticulospinal tract
    descending pathway; arises in the reticular formation; descends through ventral and lateral columns of the spinal cord; involves crossed and uncrossed fibers; involved in spinal reflexes
  103. colliculospinal tract
    descending pathway; also called the tectospinal tract; arises in the superior colliculus in the tectum of the midbrain and descends through the contralateral ventral column; involved in head turning in response to sudden auditory or visual stimuli
  104. reticular formation
    a collection of nerve cells that runs diffusely through the brainstem; involved primarily in consciousness and arousal; also involved in maintaining posture and balance
  105. caudal pontine
    involved in premotor coordination of lower somatic and visceral motor neuronal pools; maintains posture and balance
  106. mesencephalic and rostral pontine
    involved in modulation of forebrain activity; controls consciousness and arousal
  107. arterial supply of the brain
    posterior circulation is derived from vertebral arteries; anterior circulation is derived from carotid arteries
  108. basilar artery complex
    involves two vertebral arteries and the basilar artery; supplies blood to the posterior part of the circle of Willis
  109. blood-brain barrier
    separates blood from circulating CSF; composed of tight junctions between epithelial cells that are supported by astrocytes
  110. ambiguus nucleus
    found in the medulla; controls swallowing and vocalization; gives rise to branchial efferent axons in nerves IX and X