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2010-12-12 21:00:15

test 1 study guide
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  1. Know the different types of deformation
    Elastic, brittle, ductile
  2. Know what happens to rocks as a result of the three types of deformation.
    • elastic - returns to original form
    • brittle - breaks
    • ductile - bends and folds
  3. know the three different types of stress
    • reverse - compression - froces move closer together/increases thickness
    • normal - tension - things moving in opposing direction/mass stretched and pulled
    • strike slip - horizontal/shear
  4. Two types of folds
    • Anticline - hills
    • Syncline - valleys
  5. hanging wall/foot wall
    hanging wall is where the head would be if you were standing in a tunnel and the foot wall is where your feet would be.
  6. three types of faults and stress associated with each
    • reverse - compression
    • normal - tension
    • strike slip - horizontal -- shear
    • footwall goes up - normal - FUN
    • Hanging wall goes up - reverse - HUR
  7. two types of waves and how do they move through the earth
    body waves and surface waves
  8. which is faster, p or s waves
    p waves are faster/go through solid, liquid or gas and s waves go through solids only
  9. which waves are responsible for the most damage
    surface waves do most damage
  10. what is an earthquake
    energy released and radiates out in all directions
  11. what is focus and epicenter
    focus is in the ground/point where the rock broke first; epicenter is on the earth's surface directly above the focus
  12. How is epicenter of earthquake located
    the location of the epicenter ma be found by using the distances calculated in miles from three locations.
  13. results of earthquakes
    liquefaction, feature displacement, landslides, tsumani, fires
  14. how do we know what is going on inside the earth
    study of earthquakes
  15. 4 different layers of the earth
    crust - solid, mantle - plastic, outer coure - liquid, inner core - solid
  16. two types of crust
    oceanic and continential
  17. which layer is largest/thinnest
    mantle is the largest and crust is thinnest
  18. what is continental drift and what were the four evicences Alfred Wegner cited as proof
    fossil evidence, shape of contineal shelves, correltation of mountains with nearly identical rocks and structures, glacial features of the same age restore to a tight polar distribution.
  19. was continental drift widely accepted
    no -- no mechanism of motion
  20. what was one of the discoveries that support continental drift
    echo sounding technology developed
  21. three different plate boundaries
    • divergent - plates move apart
    • convergent - move together
    • transfor - slide past
  22. what are the evidences for each of the plate boundaries
    what is the stress associated with each
    • convergent: ocean/continental plate boundary - island arc volcanoes: New Zealand, Phillipines, Japan; tension: compression
    • convergent: continential/continental - himmalayas; tension: compression
    • transform - sliding past - san andreas fault
    • divergent - sea floor spreading and mid ocean ridges; shear, constructive margins
  23. where do earthquakes occur
  24. what information is used ot locate differen plates
    location of earthquakes
  25. what is a mineral
    naturally occuring (formed by natural, geogologic procese), inorganic (not alive), crystalline structure (atoms are arranged in orderly, repetitive pattern), solid (at temperatures experienced at the earth's surface), definite chemical composition that usually are made up of two or more elements.
  26. two top elements found in universe
    hydrogen and helium
  27. three elements found in earth's crust
    oxygen, silicone, aluminum
  28. how is periodic table set up
    • set up by number of energy shells and atomic mass
    • elements are organized so that those with similar properties line up in columns
  29. what is an atomic number and what does it mean and what is atomic mass
    the atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; atomic mass is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons
  30. how do minerals form
  31. how to identify minerals
    luster: glassy, waxy, dull; hardness; clevage vs fracture/90 degree angle; strea; color;
  32. know the location and charge of subatomic particles
    protons and neurtons are in the nucleus. Electrons are in the energy shells. Protons are positive. Neutrons have no charge. Electrons are negative.
  33. understand the number of protons in an atom is its atomic number
    the atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  34. which of the 7 mineral groups is the most abundant
  35. which of the mineral groups are made of minerals containing only one element
    native elements are comprised entirely of one element: diamond, gold, silver, graphite
  36. basic structure of the silicate group
    four oxygen with silicate in center
  37. hardest mineral
  38. know some mineral examples and what they would be used for
    • clay minerals to thinken milk shakes
    • gypsum for plaster
    • halite for salt
    • sylvite for fertilizer
    • calcite for cement
    • silver/gold/platinum for jewelry
    • ice for solid form of water
    • copper for electrical conductor