STDs

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jtmercado2005
ID:
36614
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STDs
Updated:
2010-09-22 15:36:54
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flash cards for STD
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  1. Chlamydia
    • - causative organism is Choamydia Trachomatis
    • - most common STD in US
    • - causes non-Gonocoocal Urethrisitis (NGU) in men
    • - initially asymptomatic in women but can result in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    • - Ophthalmic infections and pneumonia in neonates
    • - routine screening of sexually active women under 25 or with multiple partners
  2. Chlamydia Treatment
    • - single dose of Azithromycin (Zithromax) 1 gram PO
    • - Doxycycline 100mg PO BID X 7days
    • - Confirmatory test DNA probe of cervix (female) or urethra (male)
    • - offer concurrent treatment for gonorrhea
  3. Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
    • - caused by a single strain of C. Trachomatis
    • - common in tropical countries
    • - some cases in southern US
    • - begins as erosions in genital region
    • - progresses to lymphatic swelling and obstruction
    • - treatment with Doxycycline 100 mg PO BID X 21days
  4. Gonorrhea
    • - causative organism is Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
    • - male severe mucopurulent urethritis
    • - females can be asymptomatic but progress to mucopurulent cervicitis and PID
    • - can infect rectum, pharynx
    • - treatment of choice is Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) IM 125 mg X 1
    • - Alternative Cefixime (Suprax) 400 mg PO X 1
    • - confirmatory testing DNA probe
    • - co-treat for Chlamydia
    • - can cause disseminated gonococcal infectoin: sepsis, petechiae, pustular skin lesions, septic arthritis
    • - blindness in untreated infants
  5. Mycoplasma Genitalium
    • - newly recognized STD
    • - no commercially available test
    • - causes urethritis or cervicitis
    • - if urethritis does not respond consider
    • - treat with 5 day course of Azithromycin (Zithromax)
  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    • - syndrome involving endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, tubo-ovarian abscess
    • - symptoms: pelvic pain, fever, vaginal discharge
    • - pain worse with walking or intercourse
    • - treatment of choice Cefoxitin (Mefoxin) IV with Doxycycline
  7. PID Treatment and Complications
    • - may require hospitalization
    • - may require surgery if abscesses fail to resolve

    • Complications:
    • - tubal scarring
    • - infertility
    • - ectopic pregnancy
    • - chronic pelvic pain
  8. Epididymitis
    • - infection of epididymis, a structure behind the testicle
    • - can be STD or acquired non-sexually
    • - Symptoms: fever, pain in posterior testicle
    • - treat sexually acquired with Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) and Doxycycline
    • - treat E coli with Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
    • - utilize analgesics, ice scrotal support, bedrest
  9. Syphilis
    • - causative organism Treponema Pallidum, a spirochete
    • - responsive to penicillin
    • - if untreated, can progress to cardiac and neurological damage
    • - congenital syphilis cause fetal death, blindness, mental retardation
    • - 3 stages: primary, secondary, tertiary
    • - diagnosis by blood test RPR or VDRL or culture of chancre
  10. Neurosyphilis
    • - causes dementia, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy
    • - must be treated with continuous IV Penicillin X 14 days
    • - damage can be arrested but is irreversible
  11. Trichomoniasis
    • causes by Trichomonas vaginalis a protozoal infection
    • - causes a vaginal infection with itching and foul yellow-green discharge (diagnose smear of discharge)
    • - men are asymptomatic
    • - diagnosed by history, exam and microscopic examination of discharge
    • - treatment is a single dose of Metronidazole (Flagyl) - cannot drink alcohol
    • - must treat male partner
  12. Herpes Simplex
    • - inoculation through direct contact with virus
    • - symptoms begin about a week after exposure
    • - may have prodrom of low grade fever, malaise, headache, aches, swollen lymph nodes
    • - develop vesicles on area of exposure
    • - vesicles evolve into painful ulcers
    • - infection can occur on genitals, oral mucous, hands or cutaneous
    • - lesions will resolve in several weeks, but infections persists for LIFE
    • - initial outbreak is usually the worst
    • - virus remains in nerve cells
    • - virus can reactivate when host is stressed or immunocompromised
    • - subsequent outbreaks may become less severe, less frequent or cease entirely
    • - patient most contagious just before and during outbreak
    • - viral shedding can occur when asymptomatic
    • - refrain from sex during outbreak
    • - use condoms
    • - Valacyclovir (Valtrex) can reduce the risk of transmission
  13. Genital and Anal Warts
    • - causative organism Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), multiple strains
    • - causes fleshy lesions
    • - certain strains promote cancer of the cervix or anus
    • - no curative treatment
    • - Gardasil: vaccine to prevent 4 strains of HPV
    • - indicated for pre-adolescent girls
    • - 3 shots over 6mo: $150/dose
    • - can be removed with freezing, surgery, laser, topical applications
    • - virus persists after removal and patient remains contagious

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