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a. Considered in light of biological
aspects of a person, involving characteristics which differentiate females from
males by chromosomal, anatomical, reproductive, hormonal and other
a. Involves those social, cultural, and
psychological aspects linked to males and females through particular social
a. Stereotypes that describe beliefs
about what the typical woman and man are like.
come to mean behaviors determined by biological sex, such as bearing and
nursing children, etc
a. Has come to mean entirely social
created expectations of masculine and feminine behavior. These expectations are
initiated and perpetuated by the institutions and values of a particular
a. Stereotypes about what women and men should
a. Categories that society places it
members into that determine how they will be defined and treated.
a. A status you are born with.
a. The use of male behavior as the norm
against which to measure females.
a. One which will affect almost every
aspect of our lives.
a. The tendency to view heterosexuality
as the norm and to ignore or render invisible the alternatives of homosexuality
a. A system of ranking social statuses.
Occurs when system becomes structured or institutionalized.
Rate of Illness
a. Number of deaths per 1000 population.
The division of a species into two seperate sexes, male and female.
a. An explanation. Formal theories
consist of sets of logically interrelated propositions which seek to explain a
group of facts, phenomena, or an entire class of empirical events.
a. Spontaneous behavior from ongoing
content of experience.
a. Associated with femininity. Women –
inside family, tension management in family, socialization of children.
a. Associated with masculinity. Men –
outside family, occupational world, adaptation of society.
behavior that is shaped by norms and expectations of others based on role.
a. Exhibiting both female and male
a. Cognitive structure, a network of
associations or set of interrelated ideas.
a. Socially shared beliefs that certain
qualities can be assigned to individuals based on their sex.
a. An individual’s private experience of
the self as female or male.
a. An understanding that a person’s
gender is fixed and cannot be changed or altered by a change in hairstyle,
dress, or name. Achieved by a child
between ages 3 and 5.
a. Interpreting observations of another
culture in terms of our own.
a. Difficulty conforming to certain
gender roles because such roles are often contradictory and inconsistent.
a. The variable that is measured in an
experiment. Depends on the independent.
a. A stage at which boys develop an
intense attachment to their mother and begin seeing father as a rival.
a. A stage at which girls develop
intense attachment to their father and see mother as a rival.
a. Variable that is manipulated in an
a. A negative evaluation of a person
because they belong to a certain group.
a. Prejudice based on a person’s sex.
Describe the ideas by Parsons and Bales of role traits for males and females.
1. There is less disruption and competition, more harmony and stability, when spouses assume complimentary roles.
2. Example - Husband takes on instrumental role and wife takes on expressive role.
3. When deviation occurs or when they overlap to a great extent, it causes disequilibrium in the family.
What are the four differences that Maccoby and Jacklin say exist between men and women?
- 1. females are better at verbal ability
- 2. males are better at math after adolescence
- 3. males better at visual spatial ability
- 4. males tend to be more aggressive
What adjectives do we associate with males?
What adjectives do we associate to females?
What has research found in relation to the average individual "fitting" into roles.
Men and women may not differ much from each other.
Differences exist more in myth than in fact.
Functionalism on gender roles?
Men and women taking on different roles was more useful in preindustrial societies.
Conflict theory on gender roles?
society is a stage where struggles for power and dominance are acted out.
After the advent of capitalism, a woman's domestic labor was no longer worth the same as a man's work.
Who applied conflict theory to the family?
Psychoanalytic theory on gender roles?
- Sigmund Freud - first theory of human personality to assign a central role to sexuality.
- Id, Ego, Superego
Social role theory on gender roles?
Men and women are expected to have the qualities that fit them for the tasks they normally carry out. This behavior is learned through socialization.
Social learning theory on gender roles?
A child develops both gender identity and gender role through a learning process that involves modeling, imitation, and reinforcment.
Schema theory on gender roles?
Individual difference in reliance on the gender schema stem from differences in the degree to which the gender dichotomy is emphasized during socialization.
What is W. I. Thomas' theorum?
A situation defined as real is real in it's consequences.
focuses on reform rather than extreme efforts.
focus on social structures of male dominance over women in search of explanations.
combine gender with other social categories such as race and class that define the groups that have power and those that are powerless.
How would Erving Goffman explain gender role diversity?
People assume various roles as if on stage giving a performance. Dramaturgy!
Strengths and weaknesses of Case History?
- S - provides richness of detail
- W - researcher bias can influence outcomes
Strengths and weaknesses of Phenomenological method?
- Trys to understand behavior from the individual perspective.
- S - removes researcher bias somewhat
- W - may not be representative if only a small number of people are studied.
Explain Naturalistic observation
- Referred to detached observation
- S - close to reality
- W - researcher bias
Explain survey method
- S - gains info from large number of people.
- W - incorrect data, memory bias, info is only co relational and not causal
Explain Experiment method
- Most controlled way to test a theory.
- S - control over extraneous variables
- W - if study is not life like results may not be generalized to the larger population