Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
2010-09-24 18:03:59

Chapter 6
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  1. How many different states of matter are there? What are they?
    • Solids
    • Liquids
    • Gases
  2. What is a Solid matter? Why does it maintain it's shape?
    • Atoms or molecules that are limited to back and fourth motion about a central position
    • It maintains shape because atoms are are kept in place by strong mutual forces
  3. What is Liquids defined as? What shape do they take form in?
    • Exhibit mutual attraction but forces are weaker in liquids than solids, liquids move about fully
    • They take shape of their container
  4. Define Gases and what motion do they exhibit?
    • Molecular attractive forces are very weak
    • Exhibit rapid motion, random motion with frequent collisions
  5. What are the 2 types of internal energy?
    • Potential: Solids and liquids in position, depends on energy of position
    • Kinetic: Gas, energy of motion, constantly moving
  6. Does all matter have some kinetic energy?
    Yes, all matter possess some type of kinetic energy
  7. What kind of internal energy is in solids and liquids? Why?
    Potential energy because the result of strong attractive forces between molecules
  8. What kind of internal liquids is in gases? Why?
    Kinetic energy because temperature and kinetic energy are closely related
  9. What is Absolute Zero?
    No kinetic energy
  10. What is the equation for Kelvin?
    K' = 'C + 273
  11. What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
    Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, only transformed in nature.
  12. If you had 2 objects at different temperatures, heat will move from the ________ object to the _________ object.
    • Hotter
    • Cooler
  13. How can you increase internal energy?
    You can increase it by heating it or performing work on it
  14. What are the 4 ways, 2 objects with the same temperature exist in thermal equilibriation?
    • Conduction
    • Convection
    • Radiation
    • Evaporation/Condensation
  15. What is Conduction?
    Transfer of heat by direct contact between hot and cold molecules
  16. What is Convection? What does it occur with?
    • Mixing of fluid molecules at different temperatures
    • Occurs in liquids and gases
  17. What is radiation?
    • Occurs without direct physical contact
    • (microwave)
  18. What is evaporation/condensation?
    • Heat is taken from air surrounding the liquid, cooling the air i.e: misters at theme parks
    • Condensation is the opposite of evaporation - gas turns back to liquid (foggy windows, turn on heater causes condensation)
  19. What is the melting point of ice?
    O' celcius
  20. What is the melting point of carbon?
    3500' C
  21. What is the melting point of helium?
  22. If extra heat is needed to change a solid to a liquid, what is that called?
    Latent heat of fusion
  23. When variations in liquid pressure within a container produce an upward supporting force, what is that called?
  24. What is Viscosity?
    Force opposing a fluid's flow
  25. How much viscosity does blood have over water?
    5x greater than water
  26. What is LaPlace's Law?
    Pressures varies directly with surface tension of the liquid and inversely with the radius
  27. What is capillary action?
    A liquid in a small tube that moves upward against gravity
  28. What does capillary action involve?
    Adhesive and surface tension forces
  29. What is the basis for blood samples obtained by capillary tube?
    Capillary action
  30. What is vaporization?
    Changing a liquid into a vapor
  31. What are the 2 forms of vaporization?
    • Boiling: occurs at boiling point. Temperature at which its vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure
    • Evaporation: When temperature is lower than boiling point, water enters atmosphere
  32. What is absoulte humidity?
    Actual amount of water vapor in a gas
  33. What is relative humidity?
    Ratio of actual water vapor content to its saturated capacity at a given temperature
  34. At what % is RH fully saturated with water vapor?
  35. If air is 90% ____ is cooled, its capacity to hold water vapor __________.
    • RH
    • decreases
  36. What is the equation for RH?
    %RH = (content (AH) / saturated capacity) x 100
  37. RH should never exceed ______.
  38. What is dew point?
    The temperature at which condensation begins (cold frosty beer)
  39. What is water vapor capacity in saturated gas at body temp?
  40. What is Graham's Law?
    • The rate of diffusion of a gas inversely proportional to the square root of its gram molecular weight
    • ask lighter gases diffuse rapidly, where as heavy gases diffuse slowy
  41. What is Dalton's law?
    Total pressure of a mixture of gases must equal the sum of partial pressure of all components gases
  42. What is Henry's Law?
    • Predicts how much gas will dissolve in liquid.
    • The volume of gas that dissolves in a liquid is equal to its solubility coefficient x its partial pressure
  43. What are the 4 main gas law's?
    • Boyle's
    • Charles
    • Gay-Lussac's
    • Combined gas law
  44. What is Boyle's gas law?
    • The volume of gas varies inversely with it's pressure.
    • Volume goes down, pressure goes up
  45. What is Charles' gas law?
    • The volume of gas varies directly with it's temperature
    • Volume goes down, temperature goes down
  46. What is Gay-Lussac's law?
    • The pressure exerted by a gas varies directly with its absolute temperature
    • Pressure goes up, temp goes up
  47. What is combined gas law?
    Interaction of Boyle's, Charles', or Gay-Lussac's Laws
  48. What is crtical temperature?
    The highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid
  49. What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?
    In any mechanical process, there will always be a decrease in total energy available to do work
  50. What is the study of fluids in motion called?
  51. What is laminar flow?
    Fluid moves in streamlines
  52. What is Turbulent flow?
    Pattern of flow through a tube changes significantly with a loss of regular streamlines
  53. What is transitional flow?
    Mixture of both laminar and turbulent flows
  54. What is the Bernoulli effect?
    Fluid that flows through the constriction increases its velocity while the lateral pressure decreases
  55. What is the venturi tube?
    A modified entrainment device
  56. What is the purpose of the venturi tube?
    Helps restore fluid pressure back toward prejet levels
  57. What is 1 drawback of the venturi tube?
    Any buildup of pressure downstream from the entrainment port decreases fluid entrainments
  58. What is a Pitot tube?
    • Modified venturi tube
    • Lessens the effect of downstream pressure fluid entrainment
  59. What is fluidics?
    A branch of engineering that applies hydrodynamics principles in flow circuits
  60. What is the Coanda effect? (wall attachment)
    Observed when fluid flows through a small orifice with properly contoured downstream surfaces

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