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How many different states of matter are there? What are they?
What is a Solid matter? Why does it maintain it's shape?
- Atoms or molecules that are limited to back and fourth motion about a central position
- It maintains shape because atoms are are kept in place by strong mutual forces
What is Liquids defined as? What shape do they take form in?
- Exhibit mutual attraction but forces are weaker in liquids than solids, liquids move about fully
- They take shape of their container
Define Gases and what motion do they exhibit?
- Molecular attractive forces are very weak
- Exhibit rapid motion, random motion with frequent collisions
What are the 2 types of internal energy?
- Potential: Solids and liquids in position, depends on energy of position
- Kinetic: Gas, energy of motion, constantly moving
Does all matter have some kinetic energy?
Yes, all matter possess some type of kinetic energy
What kind of internal energy is in solids and liquids? Why?
Potential energy because the result of strong attractive forces between molecules
What kind of internal liquids is in gases? Why?
Kinetic energy because temperature and kinetic energy are closely related
What is Absolute Zero?
No kinetic energy
What is the equation for Kelvin?
K' = 'C + 273
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, only transformed in nature.
If you had 2 objects at different temperatures, heat will move from the ________ object to the _________ object.
How can you increase internal energy?
You can increase it by heating it or performing work on it
What are the 4 ways, 2 objects with the same temperature exist in thermal equilibriation?
What is Conduction?
Transfer of heat by direct contact between hot and cold molecules
What is Convection? What does it occur with?
- Mixing of fluid molecules at different temperatures
- Occurs in liquids and gases
What is radiation?
- Occurs without direct physical contact
What is evaporation/condensation?
- Heat is taken from air surrounding the liquid, cooling the air i.e: misters at theme parks
- Condensation is the opposite of evaporation - gas turns back to liquid (foggy windows, turn on heater causes condensation)
What is the melting point of ice?
What is the melting point of carbon?
What is the melting point of helium?
If extra heat is needed to change a solid to a liquid, what is that called?
Latent heat of fusion
When variations in liquid pressure within a container produce an upward supporting force, what is that called?
What is Viscosity?
Force opposing a fluid's flow
How much viscosity does blood have over water?
5x greater than water
What is LaPlace's Law?
Pressures varies directly with surface tension of the liquid and inversely with the radius
What is capillary action?
A liquid in a small tube that moves upward against gravity
What does capillary action involve?
Adhesive and surface tension forces
What is the basis for blood samples obtained by capillary tube?
What is vaporization?
Changing a liquid into a vapor
What are the 2 forms of vaporization?
- Boiling: occurs at boiling point. Temperature at which its vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure
- Evaporation: When temperature is lower than boiling point, water enters atmosphere
What is absoulte humidity?
Actual amount of water vapor in a gas
What is relative humidity?
Ratio of actual water vapor content to its saturated capacity at a given temperature
At what % is RH fully saturated with water vapor?
If air is 90% ____ is cooled, its capacity to hold water vapor __________.
What is the equation for RH?
%RH = (content (AH) / saturated capacity) x 100
RH should never exceed ______.
What is dew point?
The temperature at which condensation begins (cold frosty beer)
What is water vapor capacity in saturated gas at body temp?
What is Graham's Law?
- The rate of diffusion of a gas inversely proportional to the square root of its gram molecular weight
- ask lighter gases diffuse rapidly, where as heavy gases diffuse slowy
What is Dalton's law?
Total pressure of a mixture of gases must equal the sum of partial pressure of all components gases
What is Henry's Law?
- Predicts how much gas will dissolve in liquid.
- The volume of gas that dissolves in a liquid is equal to its solubility coefficient x its partial pressure
What are the 4 main gas law's?
- Combined gas law
What is Boyle's gas law?
- The volume of gas varies inversely with it's pressure.
- Volume goes down, pressure goes up
What is Charles' gas law?
- The volume of gas varies directly with it's temperature
- Volume goes down, temperature goes down
What is Gay-Lussac's law?
- The pressure exerted by a gas varies directly with its absolute temperature
- Pressure goes up, temp goes up
What is combined gas law?
Interaction of Boyle's, Charles', or Gay-Lussac's Laws
What is crtical temperature?
The highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?
In any mechanical process, there will always be a decrease in total energy available to do work
What is the study of fluids in motion called?
What is laminar flow?
Fluid moves in streamlines
What is Turbulent flow?
Pattern of flow through a tube changes significantly with a loss of regular streamlines
What is transitional flow?
Mixture of both laminar and turbulent flows
What is the Bernoulli effect?
Fluid that flows through the constriction increases its velocity while the lateral pressure decreases
What is the venturi tube?
A modified entrainment device
What is the purpose of the venturi tube?
Helps restore fluid pressure back toward prejet levels
What is 1 drawback of the venturi tube?
Any buildup of pressure downstream from the entrainment port decreases fluid entrainments
What is a Pitot tube?
- Modified venturi tube
- Lessens the effect of downstream pressure fluid entrainment
What is fluidics?
A branch of engineering that applies hydrodynamics principles in flow circuits
What is the Coanda effect? (wall attachment)
Observed when fluid flows through a small orifice with properly contoured downstream surfaces
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