Psychology Exam 1

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josec.tapia
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Psychology Exam 1
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2010-09-22 22:13:39
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Psychology Exam Ch.1,2 Review & Matching,3
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  1. Scientific Method
    Procedure to gather and analyze information to test and idea or hypothesis.
  2. 5 Steps of the Scientific Method.
    • 1)find the issue
    • 2)form a testable hypothesis
    • 3)chose an appropriate strategy
    • 4)conduct the study
    • 5)analyze to support or reject the hypothesis
  3. Psychoanalytic Theory
    segmund theory that people like animals share the sexual and aggressive primitive urge but unlike animals humans think and reason to be approved by other people.
  4. Behaviorism
    study based on observable responses and behavior
  5. Humanism
    study that people posses inner resources for growth and development and to make healthier choices.
  6. Cognative Psychology
    study of the mental process such as reasoning and problem solving
  7. Humanistic Perspective
    behavior comming from free will and ones choices based on self concept and self esteem.
  8. Eelectic Approach
    integrates or combines several perspectives to provide a more complete or complex picture of the behavior.
  9. Basic Research
    focuses on uncovering the specifics about a behavior (chemicals involved in memory)
  10. Applied Research
    solves a problem (uses the findings in basic research). how to treat something better (depression)
  11. Naturalistic Observation
    conducting research in the environment which the behavior typically occurs.
  12. Correlation
    studies test the relationship between two or more variables (tv & violent behavior)
  13. Positive + correlation
    one variable increases and the second tends to increase and vice versa
  14. Negative - correlation
    one variable increases the other decreases or the inverse relationship. (opposite directions)
  15. Experiment
    research method used to test casual hypothesis where variables are controlled or manipulated and participants are randomly assigned.
  16. Independent Variable
    variable that the experimenter manipulates (the cause in the experiment)
  17. Dependent Variable
    measures any result of manipulating the independent variable (the Effect)
  18. Confounding Variables
    variables that can be problematic and have to be controlled anything effecting the outcome of the experiment that shouldnt.
  19. Institutional Review Board
    The board insures that research is ethical and follows guidelines.
  20. Debriefing
    Full disclosure by the researcher to inform participants of the true nature of the researcher.
  21. Transduction
    conversion of environmental stimuli into a form your nervous system can process (light bouncing off a page being able to read it)
  22. Absolute Threshold
    the minimum intensity of a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time
  23. Subliminal
    intensity of a stimulus below the absolute threshold and the participant isn't conciously aware of the stimulus.
  24. Visible Spectrum
    spectrum of light visible to the human eye 360nm to 750nm
  25. Pupil
    behind the cornea the black opening is a hole in the iris where light passes through the eye.
  26. Lens
    behind the iris and the pupil is the lens a clear and attached to the eye by strong ciliary muscles.
  27. Retina
    surface that lines the inside back of the eyeball that transduces light into neural signals.
  28. Rods
    light sensitive cells of the retina that pick up any level of light energy and convert it to neuro signals.
  29. Cones
    sensitive to specific color lights and send signals to the brain about specific colors being seen.
  30. Optic Nerve
    composed of the axons of the ganglion cell conveys visual signals from the retina to the brain.
  31. Pitch
    the frequency a sound heard...the higher the frequency the higher the pitch.
  32. Frequency
    measured in Hz is the number of cycles that occur during a given amount of time
  33. Loudness
    sound as the amount of pressure the compressed waves of air exert on the eardrum.
  34. Decibles
    measure unit for the loudness of a sound.
  35. Cochlea
    Curled fluid filled tube that looks like a snail that holds the basilar membrane. transduction of neural impulses happens here.
  36. Basilar Membrane
    lined with hair cells which transduce sound waves into action potentials.
  37. Hair Cells
    Neurons grown out of the basilar membrane transduce sound waves into action potentials.
  38. Auditory Nerve
    carries information from the inner ear to the brain.
  39. Gustation
    sense of taste; foods must be broken down by our saliva.
  40. Pheromones
    airborne chemicals released form glands and detected by vomeronasal organs.
  41. Retinal Disparity
    our eyes are slightly apart and get two different images and inform the brain the distance of the stimuli (depth perception)
  42. Gestait Approach
    the whole of perception is better understood than trying to piece the parts in perception together.
  43. Figure Ground 1
    we pull the stimuli forward and push everything else into the background (ground) (most important principle)
  44. Clsoure
    we tend to finish shapes even when they arent closed (shapes)
  45. Proximity
    we group close objects together during perception.
  46. Similarity
    we group like objects together during perception
  47. Good Continuation
    perceive stimuli that seem to follow one another as being part of a continuing pattern. (camo)
  48. Suki's dentist gave her a drug that froze the sodium channels along Suki's neural axons. What is the likely effect of this drug.

    A) Suki's neurons will fire more action potentials than normal.
    B) Suki's neurons will fire weaker action potentials.
    C) Suki's neurons will fire stronger action potentials.
    D) Suki's neurons will fail to fire action potentials.
  49. D) Suki's neurons will fail to fire action potentials.
  50. Sabrina has contracted a disease that is destroying her myelin sheath. What effect would you expect this disease to have on the functioning of Sabrina's nervous system?

    A) It will speed up the neural signals traveling through her nervous system.
    B) It will slow down the neural signals traveling through her nervous system.
    C) It won't affect the functioning of her nervous system in any measurable way.
    D) Her nervous system will speed up and slow down in random fashion.
    B) It will slow down the neural signals traveling through her nervous system.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. A drug that causes potassium ions to leave one's neurons is likely to produce what type of effect on the neuron?

    A) both excitation and inhibition
    B) inhibition
    C) increased firing
    D) excitation
    B) Inhibition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Lamont developed a disease that reduces the amount of serotonin in his brain. What symptoms would you expect Lamont to have?

    A) Hallucinations
    B) Trouble with his motor skills
    C) Symptoms of depression
    D) Seizures
    C) Symptoms of depression
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Jackson is a normal, healthy adult man. Jackson's brain likely contains more ___ than any other neurotransmitter.

    A) Dopamine
    B) Glutamate
    C) GABA
    D) Acetylcholine
    B) Glutamate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Sasha has been drinking an herbal tea that she believes boosts her body's ability to manufacture acetylcholine. Why do you suppose Sasha is so interested in drinking the tea?

    A) She is trying to treat her depression
    B) she is hoping it will help her sleep better
    C) She is trying to improve her memory
    D) She is hoping it will help her have more energy
    C) She is trying to improve her memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Juanita was hiking in the woods when she stumbled upon a rattlesnake. Immediately after she saw the snake, which division of the nervous system was most likely in control of Juanita's internal organ functions?

    A) endocrine
    B) parasympathetic
    C) Sympathetic
    D) spine
    C) Sympathetic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Moving your arm is a n example of a behavior that is governed by which branch of the nervous system?

    A) parasympathetic nervous system
    B) sympathetic nervous system
    C) somatic nervous system
    D) autonomic nervous system
    C) Somatic Nervous System
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. The sensory neurons in your fingertips are part of the ____ nervous system?

    A) peripheral
    B) central
    C) sympathetic
    D) autonomic
    A) Peripheral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Damage to which of the following brain structures would be most likely to cause death?

    A) frontal lobe
    B) Medulla
    C) amygdala
    D) hippocampus
    C) Medulla
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Billy suffered a stroke on the left side of his brain. Most of his left frontal lobe was destroyed. What symptoms would you most expect to see in Billy as a result of this damage?

    A) paralysis on the left side of his body and an inability to understand speech.
    B) paralysis on the right side of his body and an inability to understand speech
    C) paralysis on the right side of his body and an inability to speak
    D) paralysis of his left leg , partial deafness, and stuttering
    C) Paralysis On The Right Side Of His Body And An Inability To Speak
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Cindy is addicted to crack cocaine. Which of the following brain structures is most likely to play a role in her addiction?

    A) hypothalamus
    B) septum
    C) thalamus
    D) midbrain
    B) Septum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following techniques cannot indicate brain activity in an accident victim?

    A) EEG
    B) fMRI
    C) PET
    D) Angiogram
    D) Angiogram
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Which of the following techniques would a surgeon use if she wanted to see the structures of the brain in great detail prior to operating on a patient?
    A) X-ray
    B) EEG
    C) MRI
    D) Angiogram
    C) MRI
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Which of the following techniques would researchers probably be most reluctant to use on a human research subject?

    A) CAT Scan
    B) EEG
    C) fMRI
    D) Lesions
    D) Lesions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Kerry has an overactive thyroid gland. His condition is also known as ____?

    A) Dwarfism
    B) Hyperthyroidism
    C) Pituitary disorder
    D) hypothyroidism
    B) Hyperthyroidism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. A malfunction in which of the following endocrine glands would be most disruptive to the overall functioning of the endocrine system?

    A) Pituitary
    B) Adrenal
    C) Thymus
    D) Hypothalamus
    A) Pituitary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Juanita was just frightened by a snake. Which of the following endocrine glands most likely played the biggest role in her response to danger?

    A) ovaries
    B) Adrenal
    C) thyroid
    D) Thymus
    B) Adrenal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. I have brown hair. The exact shade of my hair represents my ____ of hair color.

    A) Phenotype
    B) Gene
    C) Genotype
    D) All of the above
    A) Phenotype
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Genes that determine your eye color are made up of ___.

    A) ACh
    B) GABA
    C) Phenotypes
    D) DNA
    D) DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Dr. Jasper is a scientist who believes that our characteristics are primarily a function of the environment in which we are raised. Dr. Jasper's point of view is most closely aligned with the ___ perspective.

    A) Nurture
    B) Interactionist
    C) Evolutionary
    D) Nature
    A) Nurture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Brain scan that can show the brain structure and function.
    fMRI
  71. The chemical messengers of the endocrine system.
    Hormones
  72. The connection between two neurons in the brain.
    Synapse
  73. A sensory relay station in the brain
    Thalamus
  74. The body's chief excitatory neurotransmitter
    Glutamate
  75. The part of the neuron that receives incoming signals
    Dendrites
  76. A process that makes a neuron more likely to fire an action potential
    Excitation
  77. A brain structure that may play a role in addiction
    Septum
  78. If you lost this part of your brain, you could no longer store long-term memories
    Hippucampus
  79. Male hormones
    Androgens
  80. The chemical messengers of the nervous system
    neurotransmitters
  81. This branch of the nervous system is most active during times of calm
    parasympathetic nervous system
  82. This part of the brain allows your to speak language
    Broca's area
  83. The threshold of excitation of a neuron
    -55mv
  84. This brain structure allows the right and left hemispheres to communicate.
    Corpus Callosum

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