Bio

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Author:
mmoreno28
ID:
36672
Filename:
Bio
Updated:
2010-09-22 19:30:46
Tags:
Muscle Blood
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Description:
Muscular System
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  1. Functions
    • support
    • –maintains posture
    • •motion
    • –lever system
    • –blood, lymph
    • •heat production
    • –energy used
    • •protection
    • –shields interior organs
  2. Types of muscles
    • skeletal muscle
    • –attached to bones
    • •striated and voluntary
    • •smooth muscle
    • –located in viscera
    • •unstriated and involuntary
    • •cardiac muscle
    • –heart muscle
    • •striated and involuntary
  3. Muscle Action
    • muscles contract or relax
    • –cannot push!
    • •need antagonists
    • –paired muscles
    • –opposite actions
    • •extensors, flexors
    • •need connections
    • –origin(stationary)
    • –insertion(moving)
  4. Muscles Names
    • 700 distinct muscles
    • •named for various characteristics
    • –direction of muscle fibers
    • •rectus abdominus
    • - parallel to midline
    • –location
    • •tibialis anterior - near tibia
    • –size
    • •gluteus maximus- largest
    • •adductor longus long
    • –origins
    • •biceps, triceps, quadriceps - 2, 3, 4 origins
    • –shape
    • •deltoid - triangular
    • –action
    • •adductor longus- closer to midline
  5. Connective Tissue
    • fascia
    • –sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue
    • •forms sheath around muscles
    • tendons
    • –extensions of fascia
    • –attaches muscle to periosteum of bone
  6. Muscle Structure
    • 1) muscle
    • –40 to 50% of body weight
    • 2) muscle bundles (fascicles)
    • –collections of muscle fibers
    • 3) muscle cells (fibers)
    • –may be 12” long
    • –full of myofibrils
    • •contracting element
  7. Muscle cell structure
    • sarcolemma
    • –plasma membrane
    • –sarc-,Greek for flesh
    • sarcoplasm

    • –cytoplasm
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • –endoplasmic reticulum
    • T (transverse) system
    • •myofibrils
    • hundreds (thousands!) per cell
  8. Myofibril Stucture
    • sarcomeres(repeating patterns)
    • –myosin(thick filaments)
    • •16 nm in diameter
    • –actin(thin filaments)
    • •6 nm in diameter
    • •Z line
    • –marks ends of sarcomere)
  9. Muscle Contractions
    • Sliding filament theory
    • –actin and myosin slide together
    • Nerve impulse initiates action
    • –impulse travels into cell via T tubules
    • •Ca+ ions released
    • –from sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • Myosin attaches to actin
    • –pulls actin
    • –sarcomere shortens
    • –uses energy (ATP)
  10. blood (Intro)
    • Viscous fluid
    • –density: water 1, blood 4.5-5.5
    • (blood thicker than water)

    • 8% of body weight
    • –male: 5 to 6 qts
    • –female:4 to 5 qts
    • Many functions
  11. Functions
    • Transports hormones, O2, nutrients to cell
    • Ttransports CO2, wastes from cell
    • Fights infection
    • Maintains blood pressure
    • Maintains pH
    • Regulates body temperature
  12. Blood Componets
    • Formed Elements
    • solids (45%)
    • Plasma
    • Fluid ( 55%)
  13. Formed Elments
    • Red Blood cells
    • erythrocytes
    • White blood cells
    • leucocytes
    • Platelets
    • thrombocytes
  14. Red Blood Cells
    • Bconcanve Disks
    • -25 trillion
    • Contain Hemoglobin
    • -300 million molecules/ cells
    • Produced in bone marrow
    • -life span 120 days
    • Erythropoietin increases numbers
    • kidney hormone
  15. Hemoglobin
    • Respiratory Pigment
    • carries oxygen adn red color
    • four polypedtide chains
    • four heme groups (conatin iron)
    • Enclosed within cells to keep viscosioty low
    • HB+02====HB02===(OXYHEMOGLOBIN)
  16. RBC life cycle
    • Derived from stem cells in bone marrow
    • Destroyed in liver and splean
    • Macrophages
    • 8,000,000 destroyed every second
    • globin broken down and reused
    • iron saved for reuse
    • heme excreted as bilirubin
  17. white blood cells
    • Larger, less numbers than RBC
    • 1 WBC: 700 RBC'S
    • Nucleated
    • No hemoglobin
    • Colony stimulating factor increses WBC count
    • produced by WBC
    • Most live only a few days
    • Found in blood, tissue fluid, lymph
  18. Blood Clotting
    • Platelets a product of cell breakdown
    • megakaryocytes
    • 200 Billion produced/day!
    • Fibrinogen and Prothombin
    • Plasma proteins involved in clotting
    • Vitamin K also neccesary
  19. Plasma
    • Straw colored liquid
    • 92% water
    • Contains plasma proteins
    • albumin (60%)
    • transport od bilirubin, hormones
    • globulin (15%)
    • ldl and hdl immunity
    • fibrinogen (4%)
    • clottin
  20. Blood typing
    • Proteins on surface of RBC'S
    • ___A.B.O
    • RH
    • Frequencies of blood types
    • 0(47%) universal
    • A (41%)
    • B(9%)
    • AB (3%) Universal recipeint

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