IBHS Tissues

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monchi
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36707
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IBHS Tissues
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2010-09-28 01:01:33
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Tissues
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IBHS Dr Nickola
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  1. Collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions
    TISSUES
  2. The study of tissues....
    HISTOLOGY
  3. The types of tissues (and their percentage)
    • 1. Neural (2%)
    • 2. Epithelial (3%)
    • 3. Connective (45%)
    • 4. Muscle (50%)
  4. Tissue which carres information from one part of the body to another in the form of electrical impulses.
    Neural Tissue
  5. Tissue that covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers and forms glands
    Epithelial tissue
  6. Tissue that is specialized for contraction and includes the skeletal muscles of the body, the muscle of the heart and the muscular walls of hollow organs.
    Muscle Tissue
  7. Tissue which fills internal spaces, provides structural support for other tissues, transports materials within the body and stores energy reserves.
    Connective Tissue
  8. Epithelial Tissue:
    Epithelia
    layers of cells that cover internal or external surfaces
  9. Epithelial Tissue:

    Glands
    structures made of cells that produce fluid secretions
  10. 4 Basic Functions of Epithelila Tissue
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Transport
    • 3. Secretion
    • 4. Provide Sensation
  11. Epithelial Tissue:
    Epithelial:
    1. Anything that has communication with the outside world: Body surface and lining of involutions
    -skin, G.I.tract, respiratory tract, urogenital tracts
    2. Lining of cavities and blood vessels and exocrine glands
    -endothelium, mesothelium
  12. Characteristics of Epithelia:
    Glands- Structiure made of cells that produce secretions
  13. Epithelia + Glands =
    epithelial tissues
  14. The term that refers to the presence of structural and functional differences between the exposed and attached surfaces
    POLARITY
  15. 4 Characteristics of Epithelial
    • 1. Polarity
    • 2. Avascular
    • 3. Regenerative
    • 4. Cell attachment
  16. Structure that produce fluid secretions
    Glands
  17. Characteristics of Epithelia:
    2. Avascular
    They lack blood vessels therefore obtain nutrients by diffustion or absorption across the exposed (apical) or attached (basal) epithelial surface
  18. Characteristics of Epithelia:
    1. Polarity
    EXTRACELLULAR:
    Apical- Where the cell is exposed to an internal/external enviroment
    ..... Cilia-(sweep debris) i.e. Respiratoy tract
    ..... Microvilli- (increase surface area 20 times) i.e. digestive tract
    Lateral- contacts neighboring cells
    Basal- contacts "underlying stuff"
    Basolateral= lower sides and bottom
  19. Characteristics of Epithelia:
    3. Regenerative

    Replace lost or damaged
    Continual division of stem cells
  20. Characteristics of Epithelia:
    4. Cell Attachment: to neighboring cells and to underlying stuff via:

    A. Intercellular cement: hyaluronic acid
    B. Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM)
    C. Cell Juctions: tight, adheresn, gap junctions, and desmosomes (button & hemi)
  21. Cilia or Microvilli? Urinary Tract
    Microvilli ( Remember: Microvilli is abudant on surfaces where absorption or secretion takes place)
  22. LUMEN- the central space within a duct or other internal passageway (the apcial surface of the epithelial cells are exposed to the lumen)
  23. What is the underlying STUFF?
    Basal Lamina
  24. What are the 2 layers of the Basal Lamina?
    • 1. Lamina lucida
    • 2. Lamina densa
  25. T/F Basement membrane is referred to as a intracellular matrix
    False... its referred to as a EXTRAcellular matrix
  26. Composed of protein fibers made by both above epithelial cells and underlying fibroblast of reticular lamina connective tissue
    Basal Lamina
  27. What is the basement membrane composed of?
    • 1. Basal lamina (which includes lamina lucida and lamina densa)
    • and
    • 2. Reticular Lamina (connective tissues)
  28. Is the basal lamina the same as the basement membrane?
    NO... basal lamina is part of the basement membrane but it is also comprised of the reticular lamina
  29. Transmembrane proteins that tie the cytoskeleton to :
    a. the cytoskeleton of neighboring celss
    b. proteins in the underlying extracellular matrix
    Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM)
  30. Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
    Transmembrane proteins that tie the cytoskeleton (actin, microtubules) to:
    a. cytoskeleton of neighboring cells
    b. proteins in the underlying extracellular matrix
    • Can also serve as receptors
    • Contribute to cell junctions
  31. CAM Classifcation:
    • Cadherins- link cytoskeletons of neighboring cells
    • Integrins- Link the cytoskeleton to proteins in matrix
    • Selectins- transient cell-cell binding in bloodstream
  32. Where on the cell are tight junctions found?
    Lateral Surfaces (remember they attach a cell to another one)
  33. Cell Junctions:
    TIGHT JUNCTIONS:
    Cell membranes of adjacent cells are tightly stitched together via interlocking proteins
    -NO passage of H2O or solutes between cells - depends on the junctional proteins

    Limits movement of integral proteins
  34. What limits movement of integral proteins?
    Tight Junctions
  35. What type of cell junctions are found in the blood brain barrier?
    Tight junctions
  36. The 4 Types of Cell Junctions:
    • 1. Tight Junctions
    • 2. Adherens Junctions (aka adahesion belt)
    • 3. Gap Junctions
    • 4. Desmosomes
  37. Type of cell junction that is usually found in epithelial tissue below a tight junction
    Adherens junction
  38. Specialized areas of the cell membrane that attach a cell to another cell and/or extracellular materials
    Cell Junctions
  39. The type of tissue that covers exposed surfaces and lines internal passageways and body cavities is:

    A. muscle
    B. connective
    C. neural
    D. epithelial
    D. epithelial
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Interlocking channel proteins that hold adjacent cells together at gap junctions.
    Connexons
  41. What type of cell junctions are essential for coordination of muscle cell contractions?
    Gap Junctions
  42. Epithelial Tissue are classified by
    1. Shape (flat vs. cubes vs columns)
    2. # of layers (one vs. many)
  43. Epithelial Tissue: # of layers
    1. Simple - 1 layer
    ---Protection is not the priority (located inside the body)
    ---Important of diffusion of "vitals" (lungs, blood vessels)
    2. Stratified- several layers of cells
    ---PROTECTION is PRIORITY (body surface)
  44. Simple or Stratified? Blood Vessels?
    Simple
  45. Simple or Stratified? Surface of the skin?
    Stratified (remember PROTECTION is priority)
  46. What is the most delicate type of epithelium type?
    Simple Squamous
  47. The simple squamous epithelium lining the inner surface of the heart and all blood vessels
    Endothelium
  48. The simple squamous epithelium that lines the ventral body cavity
    Mesothelium
  49. What type of cell?
    Simple Cuboidal
  50. what type of epithelia cell?
    Stratified Cuboidal
  51. What are the 3 types of Columnar Epithelial Types?
    • 1. Simple
    • 2. Pseudostratified
    • 3. Stratified
  52. What type of epithelium cell?

    Stratified Columnar Epithelium
  53. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
  54. Simple Columnar Epithelium
  55. Simple Squamous Epithelium
  56. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
  57. Provides limited protection and occurs where secretion or absoprtion takes place (i.e. glands, ducts)
    simple cuboidal epthelium
  58. Epithelium that tolerates repeated cycles of stretching/recoil (i.e. bladder)
    transitional (its name is transitional because it changes as stretching occurs)
  59. Trasitional epithelia in the bladder looks stratified when empty but when full it looks _______________
    simple
  60. 2 Types of Glandular Epithelia
    • 1. Exocrine Glands
    • 2. Endocrine Glands
  61. Another name for ductless glands
    Endocrine glands
  62. Glandular Epithelia:
    1. Endocrine Glands ("ductless") - release secretions into interstitial fluids--> blood stream
    -Secretions=Hormones
    -Thyroid and Pituitary
    2. Exocrine Glands- release secretions into ducts that open onto epithelial surfaces
    -enzymes entering digestive tract, sweat, milk, tears
  63. What type of Cell Junction? Lateral surfaces of cells that require rapid intercellular communication
    GAP junctions
  64. What type of Cell junctions? Cells subject to mechanical stress
    Desmosomes
  65. Cell Junctions: Desmosomes

    Concentration of CAM + intermediate filaments of cytoskeleton
    Dense Area
  66. Cell Junctions: Tight Junctions

    Cell membranes of adjacent cells are tightly stiched togehter via interlocking proteins
    • No passage of H2O or solutes between cells- depends on the junctional proteins
    • Limits movement of integral proteins
    • Location: Lateral surfaces
    • ie) Digestive Tract, Blood Brain Barrier
  67. Cell Junctions: Adherens Junctions

    Ususually found in epithelial tissue, beow a tight junction- an adhesion belt encircles neighboring cell together
    • Adhesion belt- Cadherins (CAM) connect a web of cytoplasmic actin n
    • cell #1 to a web of cytoplasmic actin in cell #2- actin of adjacent
    • cells is connected-cells can work togetherLocation: Lateral Surfacesie) Cardiac muscle, digestive tract
  68. Cell Junctions: Gap Junctions

    Allow for movement of small molecules and ions into adjacent cells and between cell membranes (via the GAP)
    • Connexons- interlocking channel proteins that hold adjacent cells togehter at gap junctions
    • -open to form a hydrophilic pore & allow passage of ions & small molecules
    • Location: Lateral surfaces of cells that require rapid intercellular communication
    • ie) Cardiac and smooth muscle, synapes
  69. Cell Junctions: Desmosomes

    Cells Subject to mechanical stress (skin)
    _ stretch, bend, twist, compress
    Dense Area: Concentration of CAM + intermediate filaments of cytoskeleton

    • A) Button Desmosome: Located on lateral surfaces: attaches adjacent cells vaid cadherin
    • B) Hemidesmosome: "half desmosome" Located on basolateral surface; attaches cell to basal lamina via integrin
  70. What are the two types of Desmosomes?
    • 1. Button Desmosome (located on lateral surfaces)
    • 2. Hemidesmosome (located on basolateral surfaces)
  71. What type of Desmosome attaches cell to the basal lamina via integrin?
    Hemidesmosome
  72. What type of Desmosome attaches adjacent cells via cadherin?
    Button Desmosome
  73. CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIA:
    SQUAMOUS
    • SIMPLE- most delicate
    • -absorption or excretion
    • ie) line blood vessel (endothelium) and body cavity (mesothelium)

    • STRATIFIED
    • -found in areas of high mechanical stress
    • -tough but need to be kept moist (esophagus, anus, vagina)

    +keratin= water resistance (skin)
  74. CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIA:

    CUBOIDAL
    • SIMPLE:
    • -limited protection
    • -absorption, secretion (glands, ducts)

    • STRATIFIED-
    • -rare
    • -more protective (where secretions can be more rough)
    • -absorption, section (ducts, sweat glands)
  75. CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIA:

    COLUMNAR
    • SIMPLE:
    • -Protection (chemical insult)
    • -Absorption, secretion
    • -Apical side typically has microvilli (intestines)
    • PSEUDOSTRATIFIED
    • -Protection
    • -Aborption, secretion
    • -Apical side typically cilliated (bronchi)
    • STRATIFIED
    • -Rare
    • -Protection (low pH)- urethra
  76. Where is the only place that you will find transitional epithelial?
    Bladder (because it stretches then recoils when it has urine and then when it emptys)
  77. Classification of Exocrine Glands:
    Classified by: types of secretion
    1. Serous Glands: watery solution containing enzymes (ie parotid salivary glands)
    2. Mucous Glands: secrete mucins (submucosal glands of small intestine)
    3. Mixed Exocrine Glands: Contain >1 type of gland cell but produces 2 different secretions (ie. serous AND mucus) -ie submandibular salivary glands
  78. Parotid salivary glands are what type of secretion glands?
    Serous glands
  79. What type of secretion gland secrete mucins?
    Mucous glands
  80. The submandibular salivary glands are what type of exocrine secretion glands?
    Mixed Exocrine glands (ie. serous AND mucus)
  81. Name the 3 types of exocrine glands classification
    • 1. Serous glands
    • 2. Mucous glands
    • 3. Mixed Exocrine glands
  82. The submucosal glands of the small intestine are what type of exocrine secretion glands?
    Mucous Glands
  83. What is the only unicellular gland?
    Goblet Cells
  84. Exocrine or Endocrine? Goblet cells
    Exocrine (secrete mucins REMEMBER)
  85. Goblet Cells
    • -Only Unicellular Gland
    • -Individual Cell producing secretions

    • Locations: Scattered in both simple and pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • Function: Secrete Mucin glycoproteins: (Protect and Lubricate)
  86. What are the 3 basic components of ALL Connective Tissue
    • 1. Specialized cells : Dispersed, little cell-cell contact
    • 2. Ground substance: fluid-like stuff
    • 3. Extracellular protein fibers
  87. Connective Tissues:

    FUNCTION:
    • Structural Framework
    • Connects different types of tissues
    • Transports fluids/ dissolved material
    • Protection
    • Storing Energy
    • Defense
  88. T/F Connective tissue is NEVER exposed to the outside enviroment
    TRUE (situated throughout our body but NEVER exposed to outside)
  89. Connective Tissue:

    Categories
    • Classic/Proper: connects epithelium to the rest of the body
    • Non-Classic (fluid & Supporting): bone, blood, fat, lymph, cartilage
  90. What are the 3 MAIN components of Connective Tissue Proper?
    • 1. Cells
    • 2. Ground Substance
    • 3. Fibers
  91. Connective Tissue Proper: Components
    CELLS
    Fibroblast-most abudant main source of ground substance and fibers
    Messenchymal cells- Connective Tissue Stem Cells
    Adipocytes- Energy storage, insulation
    Melanocytes- make & store melanin
    Immune Cells- Lymphocytes, macrophages
  92. What is the name for connective tissue stem cells?
    Mesenchymal Cells
  93. Which of the following is a fat cell found in connective tissue?
    A. Melanocytes
    B. Adipocytes
    C. Mesenchymal cells
    D. Fibroblasts
    E. Immune Cells
    B. Adipocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. Which of the following connective tissue cells synthesizes and stores melanin?
    A. Immune Cells
    B. Mesenchymal cells
    C. Adipocytes
    D. Melanocytes
    E. Fibroblasts
    D. Melanocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. 2 types of Immune Cells
    Lymphocytes and Macrophages
  96. Connective Tissue Proper: Ground Substance
    • composed of PROTEOGLYCANS
    • Proteoglycans= proteins + glycosaminoglycans
    • **composition of proteoglycans is varied in each connective tissue type**
  97. Connective Tissue Proper: Components

    Ground Substance
    • Viscous: impedes movement
    • Water soluble: diffusion of O2
    • Fills spaces between cells and cells& fibers
  98. ________________ fills the spaces between cells and surrounds connective tissue fibers
    Ground Substance
  99. Connective Tissue Proper: Components

    Fibers
    • -Collagen
    • -Elastic
    • -Reticular
  100. Connective Tissue Proper: GROUND SUBSTANCE

    Types of Glycosaminoglycans:
    • 1. Hyaluronic Acid: Intercellular cement. Aggregates proteins (la brea tar pits for microbes)
    • 2. Chondroitin Sulfate- found in cartilage
    • 3. Dermatan Sulfate- found in dermis
    • 4. Keratan Sulfate- found in cornea
  101. Which of the following is found in cartilage?
    A. Hyaluronic Acid
    B. Chondroitin Sulfate
    C. Keratan Sulfate
    D. Dematan Sulfate
    B. Chondroitin Sulfate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. Which of the following is found in dermis?
    A. Chondroitin Sulfate
    B. Dematan Sulfate
    C. Keratan Sulfate
    D. Hyaluronic Acid
    B. Dematan Sulfate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. Which of the following is found in cornea?
    A. Chondroitin Sulfate
    B. Keratan Sulfate
    C. Dematan Sulfate
    D. Hyaluronic Acid
    B. Keratan Sulfate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. Which of the following aggregates proteins (an intercellular cement)?
    A. Keratan Sulfate
    B. Chondroitin Sulfate
    C. Hyaluronic Acid
    D. Dematan Sulfate
    C. Hyaluronic Acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. Connective Tissue Proper: FIBERS

    Collagen
    • -Most abundant protein in body
    • ----35% of all protein
    • ----40 different types of collagen molecules
    • -Most abundant fiber
    • ----Long, straight, unbranched
    • ----Resistant to undirectional stress
    • ----Braided like rope= stronger than steel
    • ----Key to strength of ligaments and tendons
  106. Which of the following fiber is long, straight, and unbranched?

    A. Elastic Fibers
    B. Collagen Fibers
    C. Reticular Fibers
    B. Collagen Fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. Which of the following is is braided like a rope and is stronger than steel?

    A. Collagen Fibers
    B. Reticular Fibers
    C. Elastic Fibers
    A. Collagen Fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. Connective Tissue Proper: Fibers

    Elastic Fibers
    • -Contain the protein elastin
    • ---Branch and wavy fibers
    • ---Stretches and returns to original shape
    • ie) vessels, alveoli, tendon, ligaments
  109. Connective Tissue Proper: Fibers

    Reticular Fibers
    • -Contain same protein subunits as collagen but different arrangement
    • -Synthesized by reticular cells (aka fibroblasts)
    • -Resist forces applied from many directoins
    • -Form an interwoven network called stroma

    Common location/function: stabilize the functional cells (parenchyma) of organs, the position of b.v. & nerves within organs. Component of reticular tissue
  110. Reticular Fibers form an interwoven network called ___________
    Stroma
  111. Parenchyma
    functional cells of organs
  112. Connective Tissue Proper: Loose vs. Dense

    Detemined by the amount and types of cells & fibers

    Loose- fibers creat loose, open framework (found in areolar, adipose and reticular tissue)
    Dense- Fibers densely packed ( dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic)
    • Support cells
    • Interconnect cells
    • Organ Protection
    • Energy storage
  113. Fluid connective Tissue: Blood vs. Lymph
    Blood---> Circulatory System
    Cells :
    ----Red Blood Cells: Transport O2
    ----Platelets: Clotting
    -----White Blood Cells: Immune
  114. Fluid connective Tissue: Blood vs. Lymph
    Lymph---> Lymphatic System
    -Matrix: lymph (+soluble fibers)
    -Cells
    ------White blood cells (lymphocytes) hang out in lymph nodes & monitor the body for infection
  115. Which of the following cells found in blood protects us from infection and disease?
    A. White Blood Cells
    B. Platelets
    C. Lymph
    D. Red Blood Cells
    A. White Blood Cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. Which of the following cells found in blood transports oxygen?
    A. Lymph
    B. Red Blood Cells
    C. White Blood Cells
    D. Platelets
    B. Red Blood Cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. Which of the following cells found in blood seals breaks in the endothelial lining?
    A. Lymph
    B. Red Blood Cells
    C. Platelets
    D. White Blood Cells
    C. Platelets ( REMEMBER: CLOTTING=sealing)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. the 4 types of MEMBRANES:
    • 1. Mucous
    • 2. Synovial
    • 3. Cutaneous
    • 4. Serous
  119. Epithelium + Connective Tissue=
    Membrane
  120. Which of the following membranes lines the passageways that communicate with the outsie digestive, respiratory or urogenital?
    A. Mucous
    B. Cutaneous
    C. Serous
    D. Synovial
    A. Mucous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. Synovial Membranes:
    • Decrease friction between artculating bones (joints)
    • - Lubricated by synovial fluid
  122. Which of the following membranes covers the exterior of body surface?
    A. Cutaneous
    B. Synovial
    C. Mucous
    D. Serous
    A. Cutaneous (aka SKIN) -its THICK, DRY and WATER resistant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. Serous Membrane:
    • Lines "sealed" body cavities and covers organs to minimize friction
    • -lubricated by transudate
  124. Transudate lubricates which of the following membranes?
    A. Serous
    B. Mucous
    C. Synovial
    D. Cutaneous
    A. Serous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. Membrane Transport: OSMOSIS
    - The concentration of individual ions IS NOT equal actroos the membrane (ie. more Na+ outside the cell)
    - TOTAL CONCENTRATION (mol/L) of ALL ions/molecules intracellular equals the TOTAL CONCENTRATION of ALL ions/molecules extracellular
  126. Membrane Transport: OSMOSIS
    - Cell membrane is freelypermeable to water
    - Cell membrane is only selectively permeable to solutes
    -Solutes have a concentration gradient, therefore a gradeint also exists for water
    -Water follows solutes and dilutes them so that the total solute concentration (mol/L) is equal inside and outside of the cell
  127. What happens when theres is more solutes on the outside of the cell?
    Water leaves the cell to dilute them and make the total solute concentation equal inside and outside
  128. Membrane Transport: Osmosis:

    Osmosis: Diffusion of H2O across cell membrane via aquaporins
    Osmolarity: total SOLUTE concentration in an aqueous solution
  129. What influences the movement of water in/out of the cell?
    Unequal osmolarity across the membrane (aka solute gradient)
  130. Total solute concentration in an aqueous solution
    Osmolarity
  131. Diffusion of water across cell membrane via aquaporins
    Osmosis
  132. OSMOSIS:
    Water MOVES:
    • Most dilute---> most concentrated solution
    • Lowest (solute)---> highest (solute)
    • Low solute potential---> High Solute potential
    • Lower Osmolarity ---> higher Osmolarity
    • High water potential ---> low water potential
    • Purest water --->less pure water
    • WHERE SODIUM GOES, so goes Water
  133. Water moves: CHOOSE THE CORRECT ONE
    A. Less pure water ---> purest water
    B. Higher osmolarity ---> Lower Osmolarity
    C. Most dilute---> Most concentrated solution
    D. Higest (solute)---> lowest (solute)
    C. Most dilute---> Most concentrated solution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  134. The pressure created by water when it moves across a membrane to dilute a solute of high concentration.
    Osmotic Pressure
  135. Osmotic Pressure: the pressure created by water when it moves across a membrane to dilute a solute of high concentration
    -pressure of water required o maintain molarity equilibrium
    -develops in the solution that originally contained the HIGH of solute
    -the # of soulute particles or concentration of solute (osmolarity of the solution) determines the osmotic pressure
    -opposed by hydrostatic pressure
  136. What kind of pressure opposes osmotic pressure?
    Hydrostatic pressure
  137. What determines the osmotic pressure?
    The # of solute particles or concentration of solute (osmolarity of the solution)
  138. TONICITY: how osmolarity effects a cell
  139. Isotonic Solution
    Solutions have similar osmolarity
  140. Hypotonic Solution
    Extracellular fluid has lower (hypo) osmolarity (water moves into the cell wehre omolarity is higher).... cells will lyse
  141. Hypertonic Solution
    extracellular fluids has higher (hyper) osmolarity (water moves out of cell to where osmolarity is higher) cells will creanate

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