PSY Exam 2

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PSY Exam 2
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2010-09-27 18:12:51
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PSY Exam 2
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  1. Acromegaly
    secretion of too much growth hormone late in the growth period of life
  2. Adrenal glands
    Endocrine glands that arouse the body regulate salt balance, adjust the body to stress and affect sexual funtioning
  3. Axon
    fiber that carries information aways from the cell body of a neuron
  4. Axon terminals
    bulb shaped structure and the ends of axons that form synapse with the dendrites and soma's of other neurons
  5. Central Nervous system
    brain and spinal column
  6. Cerebral Cortex
    outer layer of the brain
  7. Connector neuron
    a nerve cell that links two others
  8. Corpus callosum
    think band of fibers that connect the 2 sides (hemispheres) of the brain
  9. Declarative memory
    that part of the long term memory containing specific factual information
  10. dendrites
    neuron fibers that receive incoming messages
  11. disuse
    theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved
  12. echoic memory
    a brief continuation of sensory activity in auditory system after the sound is heard
  13. effector cells
    cells capable of producing a response
  14. elaborative rehearsal
    silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold in a short-term memory
  15. encoding failure
    failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory
  16. endrocine system
    glands whose secretions pass directly in to the blood stream or lymph system
  17. episodic memory
    a subpart of declarative memory that records persona experiences that are linked with specific times and places
  18. explicit memories
    a memory that a person is aware of having; a memory that is consciously retrieved
  19. giantism
    excessive body growth
  20. growth hormone
    a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that promotes body growth
  21. hormones
    a glandular secretion that affects bodily functions or behavior
  22. hyperthyroidism
    over active thyroid
  23. hypopituitary dwarfism
    perfectly proportional but tiny
  24. hypothyroidism
    underachieve thyroid
  25. iconic memory
    a mental image of visual representation
  26. implicit memories
    a memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously
  27. information bits
    meaningful units of information such as letters, words and phrases
  28. information chunks
    information bits grouped into longer units
  29. interference
    the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories and the reverse
  30. long-term memory
    the memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information in STM
  31. maintenance rehearsal
    silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold
  32. memory cues
    an stimulus associated with a particular memory; memory clues usually enhance retrieval
  33. memory decay
    the fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur when memory traces become week
  34. memory traces
    physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that place when memories are stored
  35. motor neuron
    cell that carries commands from the CNS to muscles or glands
  36. myelin
    the fatty layer that coats the axons
  37. nerves
    a bundle of neuron axions
  38. neurogenesis
    production of new brain cells
  39. neurons
    individual nerve cells
  40. neurotransmitters
    chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in the neurons
  41. nodes or ranvier
    small gaps in the myelin sheath that helps nerve impulses to move faster
  42. peripheral nervous system
    all parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal column
  43. pituitary gland
    master gland shoes hormones influence other endocrine glands
  44. procedural memory
    long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills
  45. recoding
    reorganizing or modifying information to assit storage in memory
  46. reflex arc
    simplest behavior in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response
  47. saltatory conduction
    the process by which nerve impulses conducted down the axons of neurons coated with myelin jump from gap to gap in the myelin layer
  48. semantic memory
    a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world
  49. sensory memory
    the first stage of memory, which hold an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.
  50. sensory neuron
    classified as the neurons responsible for converting external stimuli from the environment into internal stimuli (vision, touch, hearing, etc.)
  51. short-term memory
    (STM) the memory system used to hold small amounts of information for relatively brief time periods.
  52. soma
    the main body of a neuron of the cell
  53. somatic system
    carries messages to and from the sense organs and skeletal muscles; system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense nerves
  54. state-dependent learning
    memory influenced by one's bodily state of at the time of learning and at the time of retrieval. Improved memory occurs when bodily states match.
  55. synapse
    the microscopic space between two neurons, over which messages pass
  56. thyroid gland
    endocrine gland that helps regulate the state of metabolism
  57. working memory
    another name for STM; especially when it is used for thinking or problem solving
  58. How the two types of Rehearsal Affect Memory
    • Maintenance rehearsal
    • Elaborate Encoding
  59. Maintenance rehearsal
    Prolongs memory by silently repeating itIn a sense rehearsing information allows you to hear it as many times not just onceThe more times a short-term memory is rehearsed, the greater its chances of being stored in LTM
  60. Elaborate Encoding
    • Links new information to memories that are already in LTM
    • When studying you will remember more if you elaborate on the meaning of the information
    • Ask questions such as "why"?
    • Try to related new ideas to your own experiences and knowledge

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