Pharm Ch. 21 & 22

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Pharm Ch. 21 & 22
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2010-09-26 16:25:47
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Pharm ch. 21/22
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  1. Chemicals that cross the synapse
    Neurotransmitters
  2. Synthetic form of opium
    Opiods
  3. Raw form of the opium plant
    Opiates
  4. Increased resistance to a drug due to continual use
    Tolerance
  5. Severe attachment to a drug
    Dependence
  6. Medication that removes pain sensations
    Analgesic
  7. Medication that causes loss of feeling
    Anesthetic
  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    ADHD
  9. Any drug derived from opium
    Narcotic
  10. Derived from barbituric acid
    Barbituates
  11. Restless leg syndrome
    RLS
  12. What are 2 types of anesthetics?
    • Local - affects only location where it is given
    • General - affects entire body
  13. What are the 4 depths of anesthesia?
    • Stage 1 - Analgesia
    • Stage 2 - Delirium
    • Stage 3 - Surgical Anesthesia
    • Stage 4 - Medullary Depression
  14. What is the most common route of administration for general anesthesia?
    Inhilation
  15. What is the difference between local and general anesthesia?
    • Local - affects only the location where it is given
    • General - affects the entire body
  16. Are barbituates considered analgesics?
    No, they do not relieve pain
  17. What are 3 effects of barbiturates on the body?
    • 1. It reduces the respiratory rate
    • 2. It reduces the blood pressure
    • 3. It reduces the body temp
  18. Which drug is considered the standard for pain relief?
    Morphine
  19. What is the toxic dose of morphine?
    60 mg
  20. What is the lethal dose of Morphine?
    240 mg
  21. What is the drug used in the reversal of a Morphine overdose?
    Naloxone
  22. What are the 4 effects of morphine on the body?
    • 1. Respiratory depression
    • 2. Decreased peristalisis
    • 3. Decreased cough center
    • 4. Contracts the pupils
  23. What are 4 uses of opium?
    • 1. pain reliever
    • 2. relaxation
    • 3. cough preparations
    • 4. antidiarrheal
  24. How do antimigraine drugs work?
    They are selective serotonin agonists
  25. What are the 4 types of seizures?
    • 1. Tonic-Clonic (Grand Mal)
    • 2. Absence (Petit Mal)
    • 3. Complex Partial
    • 4. Epileptic Equivalents
  26. What is there a deficiency of with Parkinson's disease?
    Dopamine
  27. Whatever the pt says it is, whenever the pt says it is, and wherever the pt says it is
    Pain
  28. Pain from skin & muscle receptors
    Somatic pain
  29. Pain due to peripheral nerve injury or disease
    Neuropathic pain
  30. Pain for more than 5 years
    Chronic pain
  31. What are the 4 signs/symptoms a patient may exhibit when experiencing pain?
    • 1. Grimacing
    • 2. Wincing
    • 3. Limping
    • 4. Profuse sweating
  32. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
    NSAID
  33. What are 4 reasons why pain may be undertreated?
    • 1. Opiods are addictive
    • 2. Drug seekers
    • 3. Pain medications given to other people
    • 4. Abusers obtain multiple medications
  34. What are 2 gols used when considering pain management for a patient?
    • 1. A realistic goal for therapy
    • 2. A means of evaluating & describing pain
  35. What 3 groups of patients may be unable to communicate pain levels?
    • 1. Elderly
    • 2. Infants
    • 3. Mentally Impaired
  36. When treating mild pain, what type of analgesics are used?
    Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
  37. When treating moderate pain, what combo of analgesics may be used?
    Nonopiods & Narcotics
  38. What route is used to treat severe pain?
    Parenterally (IV)
  39. When a patient discontinues a drug suddenly
    Withdrawl
  40. Required use of a drug for proper function
    Physical Dependence
  41. "Clock Watchers" - People who are undertreated for pain
    Pseudoaddiction
  42. Body's unconscious perception of movement and orientation
    Proprioception
  43. Drugs used to enhance pain relief
    Coanalgesic
  44. Substance in hot peppers that help to reduce pain
    Capsaicin
  45. Neurtransmitter
    Serotonin
  46. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
    SSRI
  47. What is a major adverse effect of opioids?
    Decreased respirations
  48. Which nonopiod does NOT reduce inflammation?
    Acetaminophen
  49. How do SSRI's work?
    They prevent serotonin from being picked-up by nerve cells which allows for more serotonin to be available
  50. What are 7 types of coanalgesics?
    • 1. SSRI's
    • 2. Tricyclic antidepressants
    • 3. Benzodiazepines
    • 4. Anticonvulsant drugs
    • 5. Local anesthetics
    • 6. Glucocorticoids
    • 7. Muscle relaxants
  51. What is Adderall used for?
    To treat ADHD & Narcolepsy
  52. What is Dopram used for?
    It is a respiratory stimulant after anesthesia
  53. What is Ritalin used for?
    It treats ADHD
  54. What is Ambien used for?
    Insomnia
  55. What is Luminal used for?
    Sedation
  56. What is Seconal used for?
    Sedation
  57. What is Phenobarbital used for?
    Sedation
  58. What are the 2 names of analgesics that are opiates?
    Oramorph & Codeine Phosphate
  59. What are the 6 names of analgesics that are opioids?
    • 1. Duragesic 4. Vicodin
    • 2. Roxicodone 5. Dolophine (methadone)
    • 3. Demerol 6. Dilaudid
  60. What are the 2 analgesics that are non- narcotics?
    • 1. Darvon
    • 2. Tylenol
  61. What is Imitrex used for?
    It is an anti-migraine drug
  62. What is Dilantin used for?
    To treat epilepsy
  63. What is Tegretol used for?
    To treat seizures/epilepsy
  64. What is valium used for?
    To treat seizures
  65. What is Magnesium Sulfate used for?
    It is an anti-convulsant
  66. What is Depakene used for?
    To treat epilepsy
  67. What is Dopar used for?
    To treat Parkinson's Disease
  68. What is another name for acetaminophen?
    Tylenol
  69. What is another name for naproxen sodium?
    Naprosyn
  70. What is another name for Celecoxib?
    Celebrex
  71. What is another name for aspirin?
    Aspirin
  72. What is another name for propoxyphene?
    Darvon
  73. What is another name for codeine sulfate?
    Codeine Sulfate
  74. What is another name for oxycodone hydrochloride?
    Percocet
  75. What is another name for hydrocodone bitartrate?
    Vicodin
  76. What is another name for morphine sulfate?
    Morphine Sulfate
  77. What is another name for hydromorphone hydrochloride?
    Dilaudid
  78. What is another name for fentanyl citrate?
    Duragesic
  79. What is another name for nalbuphine?
    Nubain
  80. What is another name for meperidine hydrochloride?
    Demerol
  81. What is another name for lidocaine patches?
    Lidoderm
  82. What is another name for pregabalin?
    Lyrica
  83. Their job is to relieve pain
    Analgesics
  84. When you combine aspirin and caffeine what does it do?
    It slows down the aspirin excretion which means longer pain relief
  85. What happens when you combine aspirin and antacids?
    There are decreased GI upsets
  86. These can relieve pain from anywhere
    Narcotics
  87. What are the 3 functions of narcotics?
    • 1. decrease pain
    • 2. increase pain threshold
    • 3. alter pt perception of pain by mimicking endorphines & enkephalins
  88. What are enkephalins?
    Neurotransmitters that block pain
  89. What do SSRI's do?
    They treat depression
  90. What do Benzodiazepines do?
    Treat neuropathic pain & depression
  91. What do Anticonvulsant drugs do?
    They reduce the "firing" of motor neurons which reduces pain
  92. What do Glucocorticoids do?
    They are steroids that reduce inflammation & swelling
  93. What do muscle relaxants do?
    They reduce muscle spasms
  94. What is epilepsy?
    When there is too much electrical discharge in the brain

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