Pharm Ch. 21 & 22
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Chemicals that cross the synapse
Synthetic form of opium
Raw form of the opium plant
Increased resistance to a drug due to continual use
Severe attachment to a drug
Medication that removes pain sensations
Medication that causes loss of feeling
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Any drug derived from opium
Derived from barbituric acid
Restless leg syndrome
What are 2 types of anesthetics?
- Local - affects only location where it is given
- General - affects entire body
What are the 4 depths of anesthesia?
- Stage 1 - Analgesia
- Stage 2 - Delirium
- Stage 3 - Surgical Anesthesia
- Stage 4 - Medullary Depression
What is the most common route of administration for general anesthesia?
What is the difference between local and general anesthesia?
- Local - affects only the location where it is given
- General - affects the entire body
Are barbituates considered analgesics?
No, they do not relieve pain
What are 3 effects of barbiturates on the body?
- 1. It reduces the respiratory rate
- 2. It reduces the blood pressure
- 3. It reduces the body temp
Which drug is considered the standard for pain relief?
What is the toxic dose of morphine?
What is the lethal dose of Morphine?
What is the drug used in the reversal of a Morphine overdose?
What are the 4 effects of morphine on the body?
- 1. Respiratory depression
- 2. Decreased peristalisis
- 3. Decreased cough center
- 4. Contracts the pupils
What are 4 uses of opium?
- 1. pain reliever
- 2. relaxation
- 3. cough preparations
- 4. antidiarrheal
How do antimigraine drugs work?
They are selective serotonin agonists
What are the 4 types of seizures?
- 1. Tonic-Clonic (Grand Mal)
- 2. Absence (Petit Mal)
- 3. Complex Partial
- 4. Epileptic Equivalents
What is there a deficiency of with Parkinson's disease?
Whatever the pt says it is, whenever the pt says it is, and wherever the pt says it is
Pain from skin & muscle receptors
Pain due to peripheral nerve injury or disease
Pain for more than 5 years
What are the 4 signs/symptoms a patient may exhibit when experiencing pain?
- 1. Grimacing
- 2. Wincing
- 3. Limping
- 4. Profuse sweating
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
What are 4 reasons why pain may be undertreated?
- 1. Opiods are addictive
- 2. Drug seekers
- 3. Pain medications given to other people
- 4. Abusers obtain multiple medications
What are 2 gols used when considering pain management for a patient?
- 1. A realistic goal for therapy
- 2. A means of evaluating & describing pain
What 3 groups of patients may be unable to communicate pain levels?
- 1. Elderly
- 2. Infants
- 3. Mentally Impaired
When treating mild pain, what type of analgesics are used?
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
When treating moderate pain, what combo of analgesics may be used?
Nonopiods & Narcotics
What route is used to treat severe pain?
When a patient discontinues a drug suddenly
Required use of a drug for proper function
"Clock Watchers" - People who are undertreated for pain
Body's unconscious perception of movement and orientation
Drugs used to enhance pain relief
Substance in hot peppers that help to reduce pain
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
What is a major adverse effect of opioids?
Which nonopiod does NOT reduce inflammation?
How do SSRI's work?
They prevent serotonin from being picked-up by nerve cells which allows for more serotonin to be available
What are 7 types of coanalgesics?
- 1. SSRI's
- 2. Tricyclic antidepressants
- 3. Benzodiazepines
- 4. Anticonvulsant drugs
- 5. Local anesthetics
- 6. Glucocorticoids
- 7. Muscle relaxants
What is Adderall used for?
To treat ADHD & Narcolepsy
What is Dopram used for?
It is a respiratory stimulant after anesthesia
What is Ritalin used for?
It treats ADHD
What is Ambien used for?
What is Luminal used for?
What is Seconal used for?
What is Phenobarbital used for?
What are the 2 names of analgesics that are opiates?
Oramorph & Codeine Phosphate
What are the 6 names of analgesics that are opioids?
- 1. Duragesic 4. Vicodin
- 2. Roxicodone 5. Dolophine (methadone)
- 3. Demerol 6. Dilaudid
What are the 2 analgesics that are non- narcotics?
What is Imitrex used for?
It is an anti-migraine drug
What is Dilantin used for?
To treat epilepsy
What is Tegretol used for?
To treat seizures/epilepsy
What is valium used for?
To treat seizures
What is Magnesium Sulfate used for?
It is an anti-convulsant
What is Depakene used for?
To treat epilepsy
What is Dopar used for?
To treat Parkinson's Disease
What is another name for acetaminophen?
What is another name for naproxen sodium?
What is another name for Celecoxib?
What is another name for aspirin?
What is another name for propoxyphene?
What is another name for codeine sulfate?
What is another name for oxycodone hydrochloride?
What is another name for hydrocodone bitartrate?
What is another name for morphine sulfate?
What is another name for hydromorphone hydrochloride?
What is another name for fentanyl citrate?
What is another name for nalbuphine?
What is another name for meperidine hydrochloride?
What is another name for lidocaine patches?
What is another name for pregabalin?
Their job is to relieve pain
When you combine aspirin and caffeine what does it do?
It slows down the aspirin excretion which means longer pain relief
What happens when you combine aspirin and antacids?
There are decreased GI upsets
These can relieve pain from anywhere
What are the 3 functions of narcotics?
- 1. decrease pain
- 2. increase pain threshold
- 3. alter pt perception of pain by mimicking endorphines & enkephalins
What are enkephalins?
Neurotransmitters that block pain
What do SSRI's do?
They treat depression
What do Benzodiazepines do?
Treat neuropathic pain & depression
What do Anticonvulsant drugs do?
They reduce the "firing" of motor neurons which reduces pain
What do Glucocorticoids do?
They are steroids that reduce inflammation & swelling
What do muscle relaxants do?
They reduce muscle spasms
What is epilepsy?
When there is too much electrical discharge in the brain
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