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Violating criminal code; intentional
- Free will
- Decision to violate law is a choice
- Biopsychosocial influences
Three Perspectives on Human Nature
Humans are basically good and want to live up to their potential, influenced by society’s attitudes and values.
Humans are undisciplined, kept in place only by laws.
Humans are neutral; behavior is learned from environment.
Risk factors lead to criminal behavior
Behavior not against criminal code but forbidden to juveniles due to age.
Basic ingredient in violent crime
Intense/disorganizing anger in response to anger-inducing conditions.
Desire for some object/status possessed by another.
Humans are susceptible to aggressive energy from birth.
Inherited instinct to defend territory that ensures food, water, space, reproduction.
Evolution of behavior--> natural selection/survival of the fittest.
When goals are blocked, ppl get aggressive.
Excitation transfer theory
physiological arousal dissipates over time.
individual cannot aggress against source of provocation but able to be aggressive toward an innocent target.
Displaced aggression theory
Tendency to interpret ambiguous actions as hostile and threatening.
Hostile Attribution Bias
obvious direct confrontation, bullying, anger, decrease w/ age
Sly, underhanded, increases w/ age, rumors & fraud, less emotion, reliance on cognitive capabilities.
Hostile act displayed in response to threat
Less emotional, Bullying, domination, teasing, name-calling
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