dental radiology

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Author:
sthomp88
ID:
36801
Filename:
dental radiology
Updated:
2010-09-23 01:37:21
Tags:
chapter nine processing errors
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  1. what type of error is an underdeveloped film? and how does it appear?
    • time and temperature
    • appears light
  2. name 5 things that an underdeveloped film may result from
    • inadequate developer time
    • inaccurate timer
    • low developer temperature
    • inaccurate thermometer
    • depleted or contaminated developer solution
  3. what type of error is an overdeveloped film? and how does it appear?
    • time and temperature
    • appears dark
  4. what are 5 things that could cause an overdeveloped film?
    • excess development time
    • inaccurate timer
    • high developer temperature
    • inaccurate thermometer
    • hightly concentrated developer solution
  5. How does the film appear as a result of reticulation of emulsion?
    appears cracked
  6. how does reticulation of emulsion happen?
    results when a film is subject to a sudden temperature change between the developer solution and the water bath
  7. what type of error is developer spots? And what do they look like on the film?
    • chemical contamination
    • dark spots appear on the film
  8. How do developer spots occur?
    seen when the developer solution comes into contact with the film before processing
  9. what type of error are fixer spots? And what do they look like on the film?
    • chemical contamination
    • white spots appear on the film
  10. how do fixer spots happen?
    a result from fixer solution coming in contact with the film before processing
  11. what do yellow-brown stains on the radiograph result from?
    • use of exhausted developer
    • insufficient fixer time
    • insufficient rinsing
  12. what type of error is developer cut off? And how does it appear on film?
    • film handling error
    • straigth white border appears on the film
  13. what does developer cut off result from?
    a low level of developer solution, and represents the underdeveloped portion of the film. film was not completely immersed in developer
  14. what type of error is a fixer cut off? how does it appear on a film?
    • film handling error
    • straight black border appears on the film
  15. what causes fixer cut off error?
    a low level of fixer solution, presents as an unfixed portion on the film, it was not completely immersed in the fixer
  16. what type of error is overlapped films? And how do they appear?/
    • film handling error
    • white or dark areas appear on film where overlap has occured
  17. how do overlapped films occur?
    when 2 films come in contact with eachother during processing
  18. what type of error are air bubbles? How do they appear on the film?
    • film handling error
    • white spots appear on the film
  19. how do air bubbles occur?
    seen when air is trapped on the film surface after the film is placed in the processing solution. they prevent chemicals from affecting the emulsion in that area
  20. what type of error is fingernail aritifact? And how does it apear
    black crescent shape marks appear on film
  21. how does fingernail artifact error occur?
    seen when film emulsion is damaged by operators fingernail
  22. what type of error is fingerprint artifact? how does it appear?
    • film handling error
    • a black fingerprint appears on the film
  23. what type of error is static electricity? how does it appear?
    • film handling error
    • black branching lines appear on film
  24. how does static electricity occur?
    • opening a film packet quickly
    • opening a film packet before touching another object, such as the film processor or counter top in a carpeted office
    • low humidity (most frequently)
  25. what type of error is a scratched film? how does it appear?
    • film handling
    • white lines appear on the film
  26. how does scratched film occur?
    when the soft film emulsion is removed from the film base by a sharp object such as a flim clip or hanger
  27. what type of error is light leak? And how does it appear?
    • lighting
    • exposed area appears black
  28. what type of error is a fogged film? how does it appear?
    • lighting
    • film appears grey and lacks image detail and contrast
  29. how might fogged films occur?
    • improper safelight and light leaks in dark room
    • improper film storage
    • outdated films
    • contaminated processing solutions
    • hight developer temperature

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