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brain Cranial Nerves
Anatomy, the brain and cranial nerves.
What are the six regions of the adult brain?
Cerebrum, Diencephalons, Mescencephalon, Pons, Cerebellum, and Medulla Oblongata
What originates in the Cerebrum?
Conscious thought, intellectual functions, memory, and complex motor patterns.
Is the cerebrum that largest region of the brain?
What is the roof of the diencephalon?
What are the walls of the Diencephalon?
What Epithalamus and Thalami contain what?
They contain relay and processing centers for sensory data.
What is the floor of that Diencephalon?
What does the Hypothalamus contain?
It contains the centers involved with emotion, automatic function and hormone production.
What does the mesencephalon process?
It processes visual and involuntary motor activities and generates involuntary somatic motor responses.
What are the Pons?
The pons connects the cerebellum to the brain stem and is involved with somatic and visceral motor control.
What is the Cerebellum?
The Cerebellum adjust voluntary and involuntary motor activities on the basis of sensory data and stores memories.
What spinal cord connects to the brain at the?
What is the medulla oblongata?
It relays sensory information and regulates autonomic functions.
What is neural cortex?
A layer of gray matter on the surfaces of the cerebrum and cerebellum that cover underlying white matter
The central passageway of the brain expands to from chambers called?
What is Cerebrospinal fluid's function?
It continually circulates from the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord into the subarachnoid space of the meninges that surround the CNS.
What does the Brain Stem consist of?
It consist of mid brain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
What parts are continuous with the same spinal meninges that surround the spinal cord?
The cranial meninges, Dura Mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater
Fold of the dura mater do what?
Stabilize the position of the brain within the cranium.
Fold of the dura mater stabilize the position of the brain within the cranium and include?
the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and diapragma sellae.
What isolates neural tissue from the general circulation?
Blood brain barrier
What does Cerebrospinal fluid do?
1. Cushions delicate neural structures
2. Support the brain
3. Transports nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products.
What is choroids plexus?
It is the site of cerebrospinal production.
Cerebrospinal Fluid reaches the subarachnoid space via?
The lateral apertures and a median aperture.
Diffusion across the ________ into the ________ returns CSF to the venous circulation.
Arachnoid Granulations; Superior Sagittal Sinus
What cortical surface contains?
Gyri (Elevated ridges) separated by Sulci (Shallow Depressions) or Deeper Grooves (Fissures).
The _________ separates the two __________.
Longitudinal Fissure; Cerebral Hemispheres.
The central sulcus marks the boundary between what?
Frontal and parietal lobe.
Other Sulci form the boundaries of the?
Temporal Lob and occipital lobe.
What directs voluntary movements?
Primary motor cortex of the precentral gyrus.
What receives somatic sensory information from touch, pressure, pain, taste and temperature receptors?
The Primary sensory cortex of the postcentral gyrus.
The central white matter contains three major groups of axons which are.
1. Association fibers
2. Commissural fibers
3. Projection fibers.
What are association fibers?
They are tract that interconnect areas of neural cortex within a single cerebral hemisphere
What are commissural Fibers?
They are tracts connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.
What are projection fibers?
They are tracts that link the cerebrum with other regions of the brain and spinal cord.
What does the Diencephalon provide?
It provides the switching and relay centers necessary to integrate the sensory and motor pathways.
What does the Epithalamus contain?
It contains the hormone-secreting pineal gland.
What is the thalamus?
It is the principal and final relay point for ascending sensory information and coordinates voluntary somatic motor activities.
The hypothalamus contain important control and integrative center which can?
1. Control Involuntary somatic control activities.
2. Control autonomic function
3. coordinate activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
4. Secrete hormones
5. Produce emotions and behavioral drives
6. Coordinate voluntary and autonomic functions.
7. Regulate body temperature
8. Control circadian cycles of activity
The Pons contain.
1. Sensory and motor nuclei for four cranial nerves.
2. Nuclei concerned with involuntary control of respiration
3. Nuclei that process and relay cerebellar commands arriving over the middle cerebellar peduncles.
4. Ascending, descending and transverse tracts.
What does the cerebellum do?
It overseas the body's postural muscles and programs and tunes voluntary and involuntary movement.
The Cerebellar hemispheres consist of..
Neural cortex formed into folds, or folia.
The surface of the cerebellum can be divided into.
The Anterior and posterior lobes, the vermis, and the flocculondular lobes.
The Medulla oblongata contains the.
Nucleus Gracilis, the nucleus cuneatus, olivary nuclei
What are the Nucleus Gracilis and the Nucleus cuneatus?
They are processing centers.
what is the olivary nuclei?
They relay information from the spinal cord, cerebral cortex and brain stem to the cerebellar cortex.
The Medulla Oblongata's reflex center including the cardiovascular centers and the respiratory rhythmicity center control what?
They control or adjust the activities of the peripheral systems.
How many cranial nerves are there?
What does each nerve attach to?
It attaches to the brain near the associated sensory or motor nuclei on the ventrolateral surface of the brain.
What is the Olfactory Tract?
Nerve NI: Carries sensory information responsible for the sense of smell.
The olfactory afferents synapse within the.
What is the Optic Nerve?
N II: Carries visual information from the special sensory receptors in the eyes
What is the oculomotor nerve?
N III: is the primary source of innervation for the extra-ocular muscles that move the eye ball.
What will damage too N III do?
It will render you unable to blink eye when a small bug flew into it
What is the trochlear nerve?
N IV: the smallest cranial nerve, innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye.
What is the Trigeminal Nerve?
N V: Is the largest cranial nerve, it is a mixed nerve with ophthalmic maxillary, and mandibular branches and its motor neurons originate in pons.
What is the Abducens nerve?
N VI: innervates the sixth extrinsic oculomotor muscle, the lateral rectus.
What is the facial Nerve?
N VII: is a mixed nerve that controls muscles of the scalp and face. It provides pressure sensations over the face and receives taste information from the tongue.
What is the Vestibulocochlear nerve?
N VIII: Contains the vestibular nerve, which monitors sensations of balance, position, and movement, and the cochlear nerve, which monitors hearing receptors.
What is the Vagus Nerve?
N X: is a mixed nerve that is vital to the autonomic control of the visceral function and has a variety of motor components. X is the only cranial nerve that leaves the head and neck region.
What is the Accessory Nerve?
N XI: has a internal branch which innervates voluntary swallowing muscles of the soft palate and pharynx and an external branch, which controls muscles associated with the pectoral girdle.
What is the hypoglossal nerve?
N XII: Provides voluntary motor control over tongue movements.
Damages to VII, IX, and X does what?
It Reduces a person ability to taste salty and sweet food.