A&P Chapter 6-8 Bones

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tiffanydawnn
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A&P Chapter 6-8 Bones
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2010-09-28 21:40:04
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A&P Chapter 6-8 Bones
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  1. bones
    • 206 bones in the body
    • functions:
    • --support
    • --protect
    • --movement
    • --vitamin and mineral storage
    • --blood cell formation
    • --energy storage (fat)
  2. axial skeleton
    • skull - 29 bones
    • vertebrae - 26 bones
    • thorax (sternum & ribs) - 25 bones
  3. appendicular skeleton
    • pectoral girdle - 4 bones
    • pelvic girdle - 2 bones
    • upper appendage - 60 bones
    • lower appendage - 60 bones
  4. types of bones
    • long bone
    • short bone
    • flat bone
    • irregular bone
    • wormian bone
    • sesamoid bone
  5. wormian bone
    tiny bones found between the major skull bones
  6. sesamoid bone
    • large rounded bone
    • ex: patella
  7. parietal bone
    superior lateral skull bones (2)
  8. temporal bone
    inferior and anterior to ear (2)
  9. frontal bone
    forehead (1)
  10. occipital bone
    posterior skull (1)
  11. ethmoid bone
    front floor of skull / superior eye socket (1)
  12. sphenoid bone
    • middle floor of skull (1)
    • keystone bone: articulates with all other cranial bones
  13. maxilla
    upper jaw (2)
  14. zygomatic bone
    cheekbone (2)
  15. mandible
    lower jaw (1)
  16. nasal bone
    bridge of nose (2)
  17. palatine bone
    roof of mouth (2)
  18. inferior nasal concha
    bulges on lateral nasal cavity (2)
  19. lacrimal bone
    medial eye socket (2)
  20. vomer
    divides nose (1)
  21. malleous / incus / stapes
    middle ear (2 of each)
  22. hyoid bone
    U shaped bone in neck - anchors and attaches tongue (1)
  23. cervical vertebrae
    neck (7)
  24. thoracic vertabrae
    upper back (12)
  25. lumbar vertebrae
    • lower back (5)
    • largest vertebrae
  26. sacrum
    bottom of vertebrae (5 bones fused as 1)
  27. coccyx
    tailbone (4 bones fused as 1)
  28. sternum
    chestbone
  29. ribs
    • true: directly attached to sternum
    • false: indirectly attached to sternum
    • floating: no attachment to sternum
    • (24 total)
  30. humerus
    upper arm (2)
  31. radius
    lateral lower arm (2)
  32. ulna
    medial lower arm (2)
  33. carpals
    wrist bones (16)
  34. metacarpals
    hand bones (10)
  35. phalanges
    • fingers (28)
    • toes (28)
  36. scapula
    shoulder blade (2)
  37. clavicle
    collar bone (2)
  38. femur
    thigh bone (2)
  39. tibia
    medial lower leg (shin) (2)
  40. fibula
    lateral lower leg (2)
  41. patella
    knee cap (2)
  42. tarsals
    ankle bones (14)
  43. metatarsals (10)
    foot bones
  44. ilium
    superior fan-shaped pelvic bone (2)
  45. ischium
    inferior pelvic bones (2)
  46. pubis
    medial pelvic bones that form hip joint (2)
  47. atlas
    C1 cervical vertebra
  48. axis
    C2 cervical vertebra
  49. calcaneus
    heel bone (tarsal)
  50. talus
    ankle bone (tarsal)
  51. epiphysis
    expanded ends of long bone
  52. diaphysis
    shaft of long bone
  53. medullary cavity
    middle of diaphysis filled w/bone marrow
  54. periosteum
    membrane that covers outside of diaphysis
  55. endosteum
    membrane that lines inside of medullary cavity
  56. articular cartliage
    hyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones that form a joint
  57. nutrient foramen
    channels in diaphysis that contain vessels and nerves
  58. epiphysial line
    vague line in an adult bone that has stopped growing (growth plate sealed)
  59. epiphyseal plate
    growth plate
  60. metaphysis
    region on an adult bone where growth plate used to be
  61. osteogenic cells
    • forms all other bone cells
    • found in fetus, periosteum, endosteum
    • primitive stem cells
  62. osteoblasts
    bone building cells
  63. osteoclasts
    bone destroying cells
  64. osteocytes
    mature bone cells that maintain daily activity of bone cells
  65. osteon
    • functional unit of compact bone
    • contains lamellae, lacunae, haversian canal, canaliculi
  66. lamella
    concentric layers of osteon
  67. lacunae
    small space in osteon containing bone cells
  68. haversian canal
    central canal of osteon
  69. canalicula
    pathways in osteon for blood vessels
  70. coronal suture
    between frontal and parietals
  71. sagittal suture
    between the parietals
  72. squamosal suture
    between parietal and temporal
  73. lambdoidal suture
    between parietals and occipital
  74. fontanels
    • soft spots on babies head
    • make delivery easier by allowing fetal skull bones to slide over each other
    • provide room for brain growth
    • frontal, anterolateral, occipital, and mastoid
  75. bone markings
    • all of the visable features seen on a bone
    • can be holes, bumps, lines, ridges, or depressions
    • usually found where tendons, ligaments, or membranes attach to bone or where blood vessels/nerves pass thru bone
  76. foramen
    a hole through a bone
  77. foramen magnum
    hole in occipital bone that spinal cord passes through to attach to the brain
  78. obturator foramen
    • hole in pelvic bone where all structures from lower legs pass through to attach to spinal cord
    • largest foramen in the body
  79. mental foramen
    2 holes in the mandible
  80. supraorbital foramen
    hole above each eye in the ethmoid bone
  81. infraorbital foramen
    hole below each eye
  82. vertebral foramen
    hole in each vertebra that the spinal cord passes through
  83. intervertebral foramen
    holes between the vertebrae through which spinal nerves pass
  84. fossa
    cup-like depression that is either shallow or deep
  85. acetabulum
    • cup-like structure in the hip bone
    • receives head of femur
  86. glenoid fossa
    • in the scapula
    • receives the head of humerus
  87. olecranon fossa
    in the distal posterior humerus (elbow)
  88. coronoid fossa
    in the distal anterior humerous
  89. condyle
    large round projection on end of a bone that forms a joint
  90. lateral condyle
    distal posterior femur
  91. medial condyle
    distal posterior femur
  92. mandibular condyle
    mandible joins with skull
  93. occipital condyle
    occipital bone joins with C1
  94. head
    round projection on end of a neck
  95. head of femur
    joins with acetabulum
  96. head of humerus
    joins with glenoid fossa
  97. malleolus
    hammer head-like projection on end of a bone
  98. medial malleolus
    • distal tibia
    • combine with lateral malleolus to form point of the ankle
  99. lateral malleolus
    • distal fibula
    • combine with medial malleolus to form point of the ankle
  100. crest
    ridge along superior surface of a bone
  101. iliac crest
    top of iliac bone
  102. line
    vertrical ridge along the surface of a bone
  103. linea aspera
    posterior femur
  104. trochanter
    • rough projection on a bone
    • greater and lesser: proximal femur
  105. spine
    short sharp slender projection
  106. ischial spine
    • on ischium
    • point of reference for childbirth
  107. meatus
    tube-like canal or cavity in a bone
  108. external acoustic meatus
    ear canal
  109. tuberosity
    rough projection
  110. ischial tuberosity
    on ischium - bottom of pelvis
  111. process
    projection on a bone
  112. mastoid process
    large round process behind ears
  113. styloid process
    long pointed process behind ears next to mastoid process
  114. olecranon process
    hook-like structure on proximal ulna
  115. transverse process
    sides of vertebrae
  116. spinous process
    back of vertebrae (spine)
  117. acromion process
    • on scapula - forms shoulder joint
    • larger process on shoulder
  118. coracoid process
    • on scapula - forms shoulder joint
    • smaller process on shoulder
  119. xiphoid process
    inferior sternum
  120. ondontoid process
    • aka dens
    • C2 vertebra
  121. ossification
    bone formation
  122. endochondral ossification
    • how long bones form
    • always starts in diaphysis
    • hyaline cartilage model of bone forms in 3rd month of pregnancy
    • pH in the region begins to change
    • chondrocytes break down cartilage
    • cartilage is replaced by layer of bone (bone collar)
    • perichondrium is infiltrated by blood vessels ---> becomes periosteum
    • osteoprogenitor cells become osteoblasts
    • afterwards only find cartilage in growth plate and end of bone (hyaline)
  123. intramembraneous ossification
    • flat and irregular bones
    • no cartilage stage (forms immediately)
  124. vitamins and minerals needed for bone growth
    • calcium
    • phosphate
    • vitamin D

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