Lab 4: Introduction to Histology: Epithelial Tissue

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VASUpharm14
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Lab 4: Introduction to Histology: Epithelial Tissue
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2010-09-24 00:40:15
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im too cool
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IBHS lab: munson. Lab stuff... (the stuff you might get quizzed on (quiz: ?) THESE SLIDES WILL BE USED ON THE SLIDE PRACTICAL MIDTERM EXAM ON OCTOBER 15TH ... STUDY homegirls and homeboys :D and good luck. you rock!
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  1. Type of microscope most commonly used in the lab.
    hint: we'll use it
    Compound light microscope: a series of lenses and a light source
  2. context: 2 types of microscopes
    Stereoscopes or dissecting microscope
    view specimens in 3 dimensions, but at a LOWER magnification.
  3. Context: Compound microscopes
    thick or thin section of specimens?
    • thin specimen sections.
    • (THIN)... THINNNNNN! there's like no other way I can remember this other than yelling it out loud.
  4. context: Compound light microscope
    Why would I want to bother using a Compound microscope?
    • because the lab told me to. and i want an A. and I know you want it too.
    • Real answer: ideal for observing cells and cell structure.
  5. context: Compound light microscope
    What is the simplest way to get decent Thai food.
    i mean, What is the simplest OPTICAL microscope?
    • magnifying glass that is about 10times (10X) magnification.
    • (For some reason, this didn't make sense to me, is it because they want me to know how to get the cheapest microscope?)
  6. context: Compound light microscope
    name the 2 systems of lenses for Greater magnification
    • 1) ocular/eyepiece lens (one would look into this lens)
    • 2) objective lens - lens CLOSEST to the OBJECT
  7. context: Compound light microscope
    eyepiece
    acts as a magnifier and produces an enlarged image of the image produced by the objective lens.
  8. context: Compound light microscope
    MAGNIFICATION (capitalized for emphasis)
    • SIMPLY multiply the eyepiece magnification, usually 10X, by the magnification of the objective lens, usually 4X,10X,40X,100X
    • (10X times 4X = 40X, 10X times 10X = 100X, 10X times 40X = 400X, 10X times 100X = 1000X)
  9. context: Compound light microscope
    Objective lens 100X
    • Oil immersion lenses.
    • (labeled "oil" or "ol")
    • USE: drop of oil is applied to slide before putting objective into place! don't forget or she'll charge you for damaging the microscope.
  10. context: Compound light microscope
    Why do I need to apply oil to the 100X objective lens?
    2 critical purposes
    • oil does not mean petroleum oil for my car that I am currently needing of. but glad gas prices are cheap here. for now.
    • 1) Lubrication - for protection
    • 2) improves the resolution at high magnification
  11. context: Compound light microscope
    LIMITS
    • we will use the lesser version of microscopes = 1000X max magnification.
    • With a limit of 2000X magnification you can view bacteria, algae, protozoa, and a variety of human/animal cells
    • (soo that's ok though, cause I would freak out a bit if I have the power to look at the bacteria on my lab benchtop).
  12. context: parts of the microscope
    oculars
    eyepiece
  13. context: parts of the microscope
    pointer
    seen through the the ocular lens; allows viewer to point to specific structures on microscope slide (not on all models of our scopes ....OMG I call the scope that has it cause I'm cooler ... jk :D ... we're all cool people).
  14. context: parts of the microscope
    arm
    supports lenses and provides carrying handle
  15. context: parts of the microscope
    revolving nosepiece
    holds and moves (resolves) the objective lenses
  16. context: parts of the microscope
    multiple objective lenses
    series of 3 or 4 lenses (4X,10X,40X,100X), ALWAYS start on the lowest power objective
  17. context: parts of the microscope
    stage
    flat surface that supports the slide
  18. context: parts of the microscope
    stage clip
    secures the slide on the stage
  19. context: parts of the microscope
    stage manipulator knobs
    two black knobs under the stage used to move slide on the stage
  20. context: parts of the microscope
    iris diaphragm lever
    lever or dial under the stage that regulates the amount of light going through the specimen
  21. context: parts of the microscope
    condensor
    a series of lenses that you move up or down to clarify and condense the light shining through the specimen, found under the stage
  22. context: parts of the microscope
    light source
    lamp that shines a beam of light up through object
  23. context: parts of the microscope
    base
    supports microscope
  24. context: parts of the microscope
    coarse adjustment knob
    large knob found on BOTH sides of scope that moves the stage, first initial focusing knob ( you use this first not the fine adjustment knob)
  25. context: parts of the microscope
    fine adjustment knob
    small knob found within coarse adjustment knob used to bring specimen into FINAL focus
  26. context: terms with viewing images through a microscope
    monocular
    one ocular lens
  27. context: terms with viewing images through a microscope
    binocular
    two ocular lenses
  28. context: terms with viewing images through a microscope
    field of view
    the circle that you see when you look through the ocular lens
  29. context: terms with viewing images through a microscope
    working distance
    the space between the slide and the objective
  30. context: terms with viewing images through a microscope
    resolving power
    the ability to distinguish between 2 adjacent points
  31. context: terms with viewing images through a microscope
    X
    • the 3rd to the last alphabet letter.
    • real answer: the times or power of lens.
  32. context: terms with viewing images through a microscope
    What happens when magnification INCREASES?
    • 1. working distance = decrease
    • 2. diameter of field = decrease
    • 3. light intensity = decrease
  33. context: ABBREVIATIONS found on some microscope slides
    c.s./x.s
    cross section
  34. context: ABBREVIATIONS found on some microscope slides
    l.s.
    longitudinal section
  35. context: ABBREVIATIONS found on some microscope slides
    w.m.
    whole mount
  36. context: ABBREVIATIONS found on some microscope slides
    sec.
    section
  37. context: steps to use compound light microscope
    lens tissue paper vs Kimwipes
    • Lens tissue paper: not scratch but not very absorbent
    • Kimwipes: relatively absorbent but can scratch
  38. Histology
    the microscopic study of tissues and cells.
  39. histological slides
    made in either cross (sometimes called transverse) sections, or in longitudinal sections.
  40. context: histology
    List the 3 ways of processing tissue of histology
    • 1. fixation
    • 2. sectioning
    • 3. visualization or staining
  41. context: 3 ways of processing tissue of histology
    fixation
    • processing the tissue to stop cell metabolism, thereby preventing its decomposition.
    • use: FORMALIN, 37% aqueous solution of formaldehyde
    • FORMALDEHYDE: reacts with the amino groups of proteins, and thus preserves the general structure of the cell and extracellular components
  42. context: 3 ways of processing tissue of histology
    sectioning
    • refers to slicing (Sectioning Slicing ... SS) the tissue in very thin layers, on the level of micrometers (1/1000th of a millimeter).
    • thinness varies with the tissue type.
    • Very LITTLE contrast is observed between adjacent regions of tissue
  43. context: 3 ways of processing tissue of histology
    staining and imaging
    • solution to bad contrasting.
    • Preferential visualization.
    • 2 of the most common stains:
    • Hematoxylin and Eosin
  44. context: staining and imaging
    Hematoxylin
    stains nuclear substances, chromosomes, mitochondria and muscle striations blue and to black
  45. context: staining and imaging
    Eosin
    stains the cytoplasm and other structures various shades of red
  46. Tissue
    a combination of an array of cell types that are especially suited to perform certain limited functions.
  47. context: tissues
    List the 4 main types of tissues
    • 1) epithelial (covered into this lab): cover "exposed (either internally or externally) areas, as well as form glands.
    • 2) connective
    • 3) muscle
    • 4) neural

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