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What are the types of cartilage?
- 1. Hyaline cartilage
- 2. Elastic cartilage
- 3. Fibrocartilage
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
- embryonic skeleton
- articular surfaces
- ribs ends
- respiratory system
Where is elastic cartilage found?
- pinna of the ear
Where is fibrocartilage found?
- intvertebral dics
- symphysis pubis
- menisci of the knee
What are the parts of cartilage?
What are the cells in the cartilage?
- 1. Chondroblasts
- 2. Chondrocytes
Where are the chondroblasts located?
in the chondrogenic layer of the perichondrium
Where are the chondrocytes located?
in the lacuna within the matrix
What is found in the matrix of catrilage?
- 1. 40% Collagen Fibers
- 2. Amorphous Ground Substance
What is an example of Amorphous Ground Substance?
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG'S) : e.g., hyluronic acid, chondrotin sulfate, karatan sulfate
How does cartilage grow?
- 1. Appositional
- 2. Interstitial
What is Appositional growth?
division of chondroblasts in the pericondrium
What is Interstitial growth?
divisionn of chondrocytes located in the lacuna
What are the types of bone?
- 1. Spongy (Calcellous, Trabecular)
- 2. Compact (Dense)
What is the difference between spongy and compact bone?
Spongy bone DOES NOT have the osteon of Haversian system, where as compact bone DOES.
What are the parts of bone?
What is the inorganic portion of bone?
- Hydroxyapatitie Crystals
- approxiamately 67% of bone (calcium, phosphate, carbonate)
What is the organic portion of bone?
- 1. ECM- collagen fibers (protiens)approximately 33% of bone
- 2. CellsOsteoprogenitor cells
What are Osteoprogenitor cells?
immature or stem cells that form osteoblasts
What do osteoblasts do?
form bone called osteoid along surfaces of bone
What do osteocytes do?
maintain surrounding bone and are located in the lacuna
What do osteoclasts do?
destroy bone, originate from fusion of blood monocytes
Where does growth occur on the bone and by what means?
- 1. on the surfaces by APPOSITIONAL at osteogenic layer of periosteum and endosteum
- 2. in length of long bones at EPIPHYSIAL PLATES by growth of hyaline cartilage and eventual replacemant of it with bone
What is intramembranous ossification/bone formation?
- mesenchyme --> bone formation
- mostly skull bones
What is endochondral ossification/bone formation?
mesenchyme --> hyaline cartilage model --> cartilage death --> bone formation
How do fractures heal?
- similar to endochondral ossification
- injury --> bone death --> hyaline cartilage formation --> cartilage death --> bone formation
Is cartilage avascular or vascular?
Does cartilage have nerves
Does cartilage grow?
yes, but very slowly through either appositional or interstitial growth
Does cartilage have a low or high metibolic rate?
What are the five components of the structure of compact bone?
- 1. Osteon or Haversian System
- 2. Interstitial Lamellae
- 3. Inner Circumferential Lamellae
- 4. Outer Circumferential Lamellea
- 5. Perforating Canal of Volkmann
What is the Osteon or Haversian System/what are the components?
- central canal of Haversian (parallel to length of bone)
- concentric lamellae
- lacunae that contain osteocytes
- canaliculi that contain osteocyte processes which communicate with other osteocytes via gap junctions
What does the central canal of Haversian contain?
- blood vessels (small arteries and veins)
- may contain lymphatic vessel
What is interstitial lamellae?
- parts of old osteons located between complete osteons
- lacunae with osteocytes and osteocyte processes in canaliculi
What is inner circumferential lamellae?
several layers of lamellae next to endosteum of bone marrow cavity
What is outer circumferential lamellae?
several layers of lamellae next to osteogenic layer of periosteum
What does the perforating canal of volkmann contain?
- contains same structures as central canal of osteon
- does not have concentric lamellae surrounding the canal
What are the parts of the long bone?
- articular ends
- marrow cavity (red marrow and yellow marrow)
- coverings (periosteum and endosteum)
What is the diaphysis?
the shaft of the long bone
What is the epiphysis?
the ends that articulate with other bones on the long bone
What is the metaphysis?
- between shaft and ends of the long bone
- location of the epiphyseal plate
What are the articular ends covered with?
What is red marrow?
- the site of blood cell production?
- (young people)
What is yellow marrow?
- mostly fat cells
- (older people)
Where are the periosteum coverings located?
on the outside of the bone
Where are the coverings of the endosteum located?
inside surfaces of bone
What is Wotlff's Law?
bone reponds to stress