Cartilage and Bone

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Author:
sgreen44
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36894
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Cartilage and Bone
Updated:
2010-09-25 21:06:21
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Cartilage Bone
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Chapter 6
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  1. What are the types of cartilage?
    • 1. Hyaline cartilage
    • 2. Elastic cartilage
    • 3. Fibrocartilage
  2. Where is hyaline cartilage found?
    • embryonic skeleton
    • articular surfaces
    • ribs ends
    • respiratory system
  3. Where is elastic cartilage found?
    • pinna of the ear
    • nose
    • epiglottis
  4. Where is fibrocartilage found?
    • intvertebral dics
    • symphysis pubis
    • menisci of the knee
  5. What are the parts of cartilage?
    • 1. cells
    • 2. matrix
  6. What are the cells in the cartilage?
    • 1. Chondroblasts
    • 2. Chondrocytes
  7. Where are the chondroblasts located?
    in the chondrogenic layer of the perichondrium
  8. Where are the chondrocytes located?
    in the lacuna within the matrix
  9. What is found in the matrix of catrilage?
    • 1. 40% Collagen Fibers
    • 2. Amorphous Ground Substance
  10. What is an example of Amorphous Ground Substance?
    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG'S) : e.g., hyluronic acid, chondrotin sulfate, karatan sulfate
  11. How does cartilage grow?
    • 1. Appositional
    • 2. Interstitial
  12. What is Appositional growth?
    division of chondroblasts in the pericondrium
  13. What is Interstitial growth?
    divisionn of chondrocytes located in the lacuna
  14. What are the types of bone?
    • 1. Spongy (Calcellous, Trabecular)
    • 2. Compact (Dense)
  15. What is the difference between spongy and compact bone?
    Spongy bone DOES NOT have the osteon of Haversian system, where as compact bone DOES.
  16. What are the parts of bone?
    • 1. Inorganic
    • 2. Organic
  17. What is the inorganic portion of bone?
    • Hydroxyapatitie Crystals
    • approxiamately 67% of bone (calcium, phosphate, carbonate)
  18. What is the organic portion of bone?
    • 1. ECM- collagen fibers (protiens)
    • approximately 33% of bone
    • 2. Cells
    • Osteoprogenitor cells
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteoclasts
  19. What are Osteoprogenitor cells?
    immature or stem cells that form osteoblasts
  20. What do osteoblasts do?
    form bone called osteoid along surfaces of bone
  21. What do osteocytes do?
    maintain surrounding bone and are located in the lacuna
  22. What do osteoclasts do?
    destroy bone, originate from fusion of blood monocytes
  23. Where does growth occur on the bone and by what means?
    • 1. on the surfaces by APPOSITIONAL at osteogenic layer of periosteum and endosteum
    • 2. in length of long bones at EPIPHYSIAL PLATES by growth of hyaline cartilage and eventual replacemant of it with bone
  24. What is intramembranous ossification/bone formation?
    • mesenchyme --> bone formation
    • mostly skull bones
  25. What is endochondral ossification/bone formation?
    mesenchyme --> hyaline cartilage model --> cartilage death --> bone formation
  26. How do fractures heal?
    • similar to endochondral ossification
    • injury --> bone death --> hyaline cartilage formation --> cartilage death --> bone formation
  27. Is cartilage avascular or vascular?
    avascular
  28. Does cartilage have nerves
    no
  29. Does cartilage grow?
    yes, but very slowly through either appositional or interstitial growth
  30. Does cartilage have a low or high metibolic rate?
    low
  31. What are the five components of the structure of compact bone?
    • 1. Osteon or Haversian System
    • 2. Interstitial Lamellae
    • 3. Inner Circumferential Lamellae
    • 4. Outer Circumferential Lamellea
    • 5. Perforating Canal of Volkmann
  32. What is the Osteon or Haversian System/what are the components?
    • central canal of Haversian (parallel to length of bone)
    • concentric lamellae
    • lacunae that contain osteocytes
    • canaliculi that contain osteocyte processes which communicate with other osteocytes via gap junctions
  33. What does the central canal of Haversian contain?
    • endosteum
    • blood vessels (small arteries and veins)
    • nerve
    • may contain lymphatic vessel
  34. What is interstitial lamellae?
    • parts of old osteons located between complete osteons
    • lacunae with osteocytes and osteocyte processes in canaliculi
  35. What is inner circumferential lamellae?
    several layers of lamellae next to endosteum of bone marrow cavity
  36. What is outer circumferential lamellae?
    several layers of lamellae next to osteogenic layer of periosteum
  37. What does the perforating canal of volkmann contain?
    • contains same structures as central canal of osteon
    • does not have concentric lamellae surrounding the canal
  38. What are the parts of the long bone?
    • diaphysis
    • epiphysis
    • metaphysis
    • articular ends
    • marrow cavity (red marrow and yellow marrow)
    • coverings (periosteum and endosteum)
  39. What is the diaphysis?
    the shaft of the long bone
  40. What is the epiphysis?
    the ends that articulate with other bones on the long bone
  41. What is the metaphysis?
    • between shaft and ends of the long bone
    • location of the epiphyseal plate
  42. What are the articular ends covered with?
    hyaline cartilage
  43. What is red marrow?
    • the site of blood cell production?
    • (young people)
  44. What is yellow marrow?
    • mostly fat cells
    • (older people)
  45. Where are the periosteum coverings located?
    on the outside of the bone
  46. Where are the coverings of the endosteum located?
    inside surfaces of bone
  47. What is Wotlff's Law?
    bone reponds to stress

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