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What is the valence bond theory?
Only half-filled orbitals that constructively interfere can make bonds
What is amplitude?
How high the wave is from zero
What is the frequency of a wave?
The cycles per second
Do waves move at different speeds?
No, they all move at the speed of light
Wavelength & Frequency have a(n) _______ relationship.
- An inverse relationship
- Smaller wavelength = greater freq. = high energy
What is the wave particle duality?
Light acts as particles
Give the definition for constructive interference of waves.
Adding together waves that move in the same direction. The wave will still have the same energy because frequency stays the same
Give the definition of destructive interference.
When two different waves destroy each other or cancel each other out (positive & negative amplitude come together)
When e- release energy coming back down to ground state, what is the energy (light) released as?
How many e- can an orbital hold?
How many shapes does the 's' level have?
How many shapes does the 'p' level have?
3 - px, py, pz
How many shapes does the 'd' level have?
5 - dxy, dyz, dxz, dz^2, dx^2-y^2
What is the Aufbau Principle?
The lowest energy orbitals are filled 1st
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
Only 2 e- per orbital
What is Hund's Rule?
If equal energy orbitals are available, then 1 e- per orbital & then start doubling up
What is the outer e- configuration?
What's written to the right. Of the noble gas shortcut (everything)
What is the valence e- configuration?
- The outermost e- in the outermost shell
- E.G. Se: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p4
- Valence: 4s2 4p4
What elements are the exceptions for the orbital diagrams/electron configurations?
- 4th & 9th column of transition metals of the 1st two rows
- Rules: Mo: [Kr] 5s2 4d4
- Act.: Mo: [Kr] 5s1 4d5
Why do exceptions exist in writing/drawing orbitals?
To complete stability. Needs a full subshell or a half filled one
Where will transition metals lose e- from 1st?
From the 's' orbital
What are the two types of bonds?
Sigma & Pi
Why do we hybridize molecules?
To get the correct geometry
What is a Pi bond?
A double bond
What is a Sigma bond?
All bonds (single & double)
A central atom that has a 'sp' hybridization has a(n) _________ geometry.
Linear (with 2 unhybridized 'p' bonds) 180*
A central atom that has a 'sp2' hybridization has a(n) __________ geometry.
Trigonal Planar (with 1 unhybridized 'p' bond) 120*
A central atom that has a 'sp3' hybridization has a(n) ________ geometry.
Tetrahedral (with 0 unhybridized 'p' bonds) 109.5*
A central atom that has a 'sp3d' hybridization has a(n) ___________ geometry.
Trigonal Bipyramidal (with 0 unhybridized 'p' bonds) 90*, 120*, 180*
A central atom that has a 'sp3d2' hybridization has a(n) ____________ geometry.
Octahedral (with 0 unhybridized 'p' bonds) 90*
The hybridization scheme depends on the number of _____ the molecule makes
If the central atom has a 4 bonds, what would the hybridization scheme be?
In hybridization, each orbital (s,p, etc) accounts for how many bonds?
1 bond each. If the central atom has a hybridization scheme of sp3d, there would be 5 bonds formed.
True or false: Electrons are between the nuclei in a sigma bond but there is no electron density directly between the nuclei in a pi bond.
Electrons were proven to have a wave nature when __________.
A beam of e- made an interference pattern when passed through a double slit
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