Card Set Information
Radiographic Respiratory Pashology
In an ideal chest x-ray, what ribs should be visualized above the diaphragm?
What is forced expiration against the closed glottis that increases the intrapulmonary pressure?
The valsava effect results in:
Compression and a large decrease in the size of the heart and adjacent blood vessels
To demonstrate fluid levels, the patient should be in an arect position for a minimum of ____, or preferably ___ to ____.
5 minutes, 10-15
The vital gas exchange within the lung is called ____ and takes place within the _____.
external respiration, alveoli
Cluster of alveoli:
Respiration is controlled by a center in the :
What regulates the respirator center?
The level of carbon dioxide in the blood
Extra fluid within the potential pleural space:
Hereditary disease characterized by the secretion of excessively viscous mucus by all the exocrine glands:
In Cystic Fibrosis, thick mucus secreted by mucosa in the trachea and bronchi blocks air passages as a result of:
an imbalance of sodium and chloride production and reabsorption
Why are recurrent pulmonary infections common in Cystic Fibrosis?
Bacteria that are normally carried away by mucosal secretions adhere to sticky mucus produced
Why is the sweat test a reliable test for cystic fibrosis?
Excessive chloride on the skin
Hyaline Membrane Disease is also known as:
idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome
One of the most common causes of respiratory distress in teh newborn:
Hyaline Membrane Disease
Hyaline membrane disease occurs most often in newborns who have:
diabetic mothers or were born by c-section
The progressive underation of the lungs in hyaline membrane disease result from a lack of:
surfactant and immature lungs
The radiographic hallmark of hyaline membrane disease is a:
finely granular appearance of the pulmonary parenchyma
Viral infection of young children that produces inflammatory obstructive swelling localized to the subglottic portion of the trachea and resulting in a barking cough.
Radiographic appearance of croup shows a:
tapered narrowing of the subglottic airway
Type of pneumonia caused by an organism that causes an inflammatory exudate that replaces air in the alveoli
alveolar or air-space pneumonia
Inflammation that originates in the bronchi or bronchiolar mucosa and spreads to adjacent alveoli
Inflammatory process involving predominantly the walls and lining of the alveoli and interstitial supporting structures of the lung
Interstitial Pneumonia untreated results in a radiographic
Three ways to contract anthrax:
cutaneous, inhalation, gastrointestinal
A necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent material
Aspiration is the most common cause of abscess and occurs most often in the:
right lung; right bronchus more vertical and larger
Tuberculosis spreads mainly by:
droplets in the air
Fungal infection of the lung:
Malignancy of glandular tissue
severe pulmonary congestion due to diffuse injury to the alveolar-capillary membrane
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Inflammatory exudates that replace air and cause the affected lung to become solid
Widespread narrowing of the airways as a result of exposure to stimuli
neoplastic growth of glandular structures in the bronchi
chronic dilation of the bronchi or bronchioles
adenocarcinoma of epithelial cells projecting into the alveolar spaces
primary malignancy arising from the mucosa of the bronchial tree
large air-containing space
excessive tracheobronchial mucus production leading to the obstruction of small airways
pathologic accumulation of air in tissues or organs; especially lungs
inflammatory process predominantly involving the walls and lining of the alveoli, it's septa and supporting structures
reaction to exercise, heat or cold exposure, and emotional upset
fungal infection of the lung
specific type of malignant bronchogenic epithelial neoplasm
Small cell carcinomas:
cancer in which tumor cells resemble stratified squamous epithelium
agent that lowers the surface tension
A disease of newborns characterized by progressive underaeration of the lungs and a granular appearance:
Hyaline membrane disease
A hereditary disease in which thick mucus is secreted by all the exocrine glands:
A necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent or puslike material is called a:
What radiographic procedure is often required to confirm the diagnosis of bronchiectasis when the results of routing chest radiographs are inconclusive?
Flattening of the domes of the diaphragm, increased AP diameter of the chest, and increased lucency of the retrosternal air space are suggestive of:
The three most common pneumoconioses are:
silicosis, asbestosis, anthracosis
An abnormal vascular communication between a pulmonary artery and a pulmonary vein is termed an:
pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
What medical emergency has occurred when air continues to enter the pleural space and cannot escape, leading to complete collapse of a lung and shift of the heart and mediastinal tissues?
Pus in the pleural space is called:
A lung inflammation caused by bacteria or viruses is called:
Name two common types of pulmonary mycoses:
It is important to remember that tuberculosis is spread mainly by _____, which produces infectious _____.
What medical term is used to describe the entry of air into the pleural space?
An increased volume of air in the lungs is seen in:
Inhalation of irritating dusts leading to chronic inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis is called:
A malignant pleural neoplasm that results from asbestosis is:
The trapping of bacteria in the pulmonary circulation that occurs in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse is called:
Reduced air volume within a lung leading to collapse is termed:
Why do intrabronchial foreign bodies occur more frequently in the lower right lung?
Right bronchus is wider and more vertical
Blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest can produce ____, which appears as streaks of air that outline muscles of the thorax and sometimes the neck.
At what costal interspace does the diaphragm lie when the lungs are fully inflated?
Air collecting behind the sternum and dissecting up into the soft tissue of the neck is called:
An accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, sometimes caused by heart failure of pulmonary embolus is called:
Congenital Respiratory Diseases:
Cystic Fibrosis and Hyaline Membrane Disease
Inflammatory Disorders of the Upper Respiratory System:
Inflammatory Disorders of the Lower Respiratory System:
Pneumonia, anthrax, lung abscess
Types of Tuberculosis:
Primary, Miliary, Secondary, Tuberculoma
Diffuse Lung Diseases:
Chronic Bronchitis, Asthma, Emphysema, Bronchiectasis
Forms of Pneumoconiosis:
Silicosis, Asbestosis, Anthracosis
Pulmonary Nodule, Bronchial Adenoma, Bronchogenic Carcinoma, Pulmonary Metastases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases:
Pulmonary Embolism, septic embolism, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
Pneumothorax, Pleural Effusion, Empyema