Respiratory Pathology

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Respiratory Pathology
2010-10-15 18:07:40
Respiratory Pathology

Radiographic Respiratory Pashology
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  1. In an ideal chest x-ray, what ribs should be visualized above the diaphragm?
    10 posterior
  2. What is forced expiration against the closed glottis that increases the intrapulmonary pressure?
    Valsava Effect
  3. The valsava effect results in:
    Compression and a large decrease in the size of the heart and adjacent blood vessels
  4. To demonstrate fluid levels, the patient should be in an arect position for a minimum of ____, or preferably ___ to ____.
    5 minutes, 10-15
  5. The vital gas exchange within the lung is called ____ and takes place within the _____.
    external respiration, alveoli
  6. Cluster of alveoli:
  7. Respiration is controlled by a center in the :
  8. What regulates the respirator center?
    The level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  9. Extra fluid within the potential pleural space:
    Pleural effusion
  10. Hereditary disease characterized by the secretion of excessively viscous mucus by all the exocrine glands:
    Cystic Fibrosis
  11. In Cystic Fibrosis, thick mucus secreted by mucosa in the trachea and bronchi blocks air passages as a result of:
    an imbalance of sodium and chloride production and reabsorption
  12. Why are recurrent pulmonary infections common in Cystic Fibrosis?
    Bacteria that are normally carried away by mucosal secretions adhere to sticky mucus produced
  13. Why is the sweat test a reliable test for cystic fibrosis?
    Excessive chloride on the skin
  14. Hyaline Membrane Disease is also known as:
    idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome
  15. One of the most common causes of respiratory distress in teh newborn:
    Hyaline Membrane Disease
  16. Hyaline membrane disease occurs most often in newborns who have:
    diabetic mothers or were born by c-section
  17. The progressive underation of the lungs in hyaline membrane disease result from a lack of:
    surfactant and immature lungs
  18. The radiographic hallmark of hyaline membrane disease is a:
    finely granular appearance of the pulmonary parenchyma
  19. Viral infection of young children that produces inflammatory obstructive swelling localized to the subglottic portion of the trachea and resulting in a barking cough.
  20. Radiographic appearance of croup shows a:
    tapered narrowing of the subglottic airway
  21. Type of pneumonia caused by an organism that causes an inflammatory exudate that replaces air in the alveoli
    alveolar or air-space pneumonia
  22. Inflammation that originates in the bronchi or bronchiolar mucosa and spreads to adjacent alveoli
  23. Inflammatory process involving predominantly the walls and lining of the alveoli and interstitial supporting structures of the lung
    Interstitial Pneumonia
  24. Interstitial Pneumonia untreated results in a radiographic
    honeycomb lung
  25. Three ways to contract anthrax:
    cutaneous, inhalation, gastrointestinal
  26. A necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent material
    lung abscess
  27. Aspiration is the most common cause of abscess and occurs most often in the:
    right lung; right bronchus more vertical and larger
  28. Tuberculosis spreads mainly by:
    droplets in the air
  29. Fungal infection of the lung:
    Pulmonary Mycosis
  30. Malignancy of glandular tissue
  31. severe pulmonary congestion due to diffuse injury to the alveolar-capillary membrane
    Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
  32. Inflammatory exudates that replace air and cause the affected lung to become solid
    Alveolar Pneumonia:
  33. Widespread narrowing of the airways as a result of exposure to stimuli
  34. neoplastic growth of glandular structures in the bronchi
    Bronchial Adenomas:
  35. chronic dilation of the bronchi or bronchioles
  36. adenocarcinoma of epithelial cells projecting into the alveolar spaces
    Bronchioalveolar carcinoma
  37. primary malignancy arising from the mucosa of the bronchial tree
    Bronchiolar Carcinoma
  38. large air-containing space
  39. excessive tracheobronchial mucus production leading to the obstruction of small airways
    Chronic Bronchitis
  40. pathologic accumulation of air in tissues or organs; especially lungs
  41. environmental allergens
    Extrinsic Asthma
  42. inflammatory process predominantly involving the walls and lining of the alveoli, it's septa and supporting structures
    Interstitial Pneumonia
  43. reaction to exercise, heat or cold exposure, and emotional upset
    Intrinsic Asthma
  44. fungal infection of the lung
    Pulmonary Mycosis
  45. specific type of malignant bronchogenic epithelial neoplasm
    Small cell carcinomas:
  46. cancer in which tumor cells resemble stratified squamous epithelium
    Squamous Carcinoma
  47. agent that lowers the surface tension
  48. A disease of newborns characterized by progressive underaeration of the lungs and a granular appearance:
    Hyaline membrane disease
  49. A hereditary disease in which thick mucus is secreted by all the exocrine glands:
    Cystic Fibrosis
  50. A necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent or puslike material is called a:
    Lung Abcess
  51. What radiographic procedure is often required to confirm the diagnosis of bronchiectasis when the results of routing chest radiographs are inconclusive?
  52. Flattening of the domes of the diaphragm, increased AP diameter of the chest, and increased lucency of the retrosternal air space are suggestive of:
  53. The three most common pneumoconioses are:
    silicosis, asbestosis, anthracosis
  54. An abnormal vascular communication between a pulmonary artery and a pulmonary vein is termed an:
    pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
  55. What medical emergency has occurred when air continues to enter the pleural space and cannot escape, leading to complete collapse of a lung and shift of the heart and mediastinal tissues?
    Tension pneumothorax
  56. Pus in the pleural space is called:
  57. A lung inflammation caused by bacteria or viruses is called:
  58. Name two common types of pulmonary mycoses:
    Histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis
  59. It is important to remember that tuberculosis is spread mainly by _____, which produces infectious _____.
    coughing, droplets
  60. What medical term is used to describe the entry of air into the pleural space?
  61. An increased volume of air in the lungs is seen in:
  62. Inhalation of irritating dusts leading to chronic inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis is called:
  63. A malignant pleural neoplasm that results from asbestosis is:
  64. The trapping of bacteria in the pulmonary circulation that occurs in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse is called:
    septic embolism
  65. Reduced air volume within a lung leading to collapse is termed:
  66. Why do intrabronchial foreign bodies occur more frequently in the lower right lung?
    Right bronchus is wider and more vertical
  67. Blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest can produce ____, which appears as streaks of air that outline muscles of the thorax and sometimes the neck.
    subcutaneous emphysema
  68. At what costal interspace does the diaphragm lie when the lungs are fully inflated?
  69. Air collecting behind the sternum and dissecting up into the soft tissue of the neck is called:
    mediastinal emphysema
  70. An accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, sometimes caused by heart failure of pulmonary embolus is called:
  71. Congenital Respiratory Diseases:
    Cystic Fibrosis and Hyaline Membrane Disease
  72. Inflammatory Disorders of the Upper Respiratory System:
    • Croup
    • Epiglotitis
  73. Inflammatory Disorders of the Lower Respiratory System:
    Pneumonia, anthrax, lung abscess
  74. Pulmonary Mycosis:
    Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis
  75. Types of Tuberculosis:
    Primary, Miliary, Secondary, Tuberculoma
  76. Respiratory Visruses:
  77. Diffuse Lung Diseases:
    Chronic Bronchitis, Asthma, Emphysema, Bronchiectasis
  78. Forms of Pneumoconiosis:
    Silicosis, Asbestosis, Anthracosis
  79. Pulmonary Neoplasms:
    Pulmonary Nodule, Bronchial Adenoma, Bronchogenic Carcinoma, Pulmonary Metastases
  80. Pulmonary Vascular Diseases:
    Pulmonary Embolism, septic embolism, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
  81. Pleural Disorders:
    Pneumothorax, Pleural Effusion, Empyema