ANT 325M

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ANT 325M
2010-09-24 00:49:29
Language Culture

Exam 1
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  1. Semiotics
    Study of signs
  2. Semantics
    Study of meaning
  3. Manifestation of language
  4. Sign systems and the meanings that are associated with them are...
    situation (context bound), that is to say they are culture specific
  5. "Jargon" refers to
    technical terminology, specialized linguistic forms, or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group
  6. While there are many definitions and descriptions of culture, the lecturer contrast two general types, those dealing with...
    learning vs. transmission
  7. Meme
    a replicator of cultural information transmitted from one person to another
  8. Characteristics of culture (8-ELASTICC)
    • Ethnocentric
    • Learned
    • Adaptive
    • based on Symbols
    • Transmitted
    • Integrated
    • Constructed
    • subject to Change
  9. Meaning of communication
    takes place whenever people attached meaning to behavior, and out of awareness

    dynamic and systematic process in which meanings are created and reflected in human interaction with symbols

    transmission of (meaningful) messages from a sender to a receiver
  10. Language (according to Sapir-Whorf hypothesis)
    A guide to social reality

    Constrains our thought

    Different languages entail different classifications of "reality"
  11. Linguistic competence is to performance as...
    Language is to Speech
  12. A language is...
    A set of symbols and rules for combining those symbols, used and understood by a community of people

    • A system of signs by which humans communicate explicit messages, and it is the primary means for interaction between people
    • The main way that humans remember the past, deal with the present, and anticipate and plan for the future
  13. Words do not really possess meaning, it is more accurate to say
    people possess meaning and words elicit these meanings
  14. Linguistic competence is.... and must...
    not available for direct observation

    Must be inferred from performance
  15. There are three major sign types according to the lecturer...
    icons, indexes, and symbols
  16. How many components and functions does the speech act have according to Hymes' scheme?
    7 components, 9 functions
  17. 7 Components of the speech act in Hymes' scheme
    • Sender
    • Receiver
    • Message Form
    • Message Channel
    • Code
    • Topic
    • Context
  18. 9 Functions of the speech act in Hymes' scheme

    (Components: sender, receiver, message form, message channel, topic, code, setting/context)
    • Identificational, expressive (sender)
    • Directive, rhetorical (receiver)
    • Poetic (message form)
    • Contact (message channel)
    • Referential (topic)
    • Metalinguistic (code)
    • Contextual (setting)
  19. Icon expresses relation of...
    formal similarity between meaning and meaning carrier (form)

    Image, diagram, and metaphor
  20. Index expresses relation of...
    contiguity between meaning and meaning carrier (form)
  21. Metonym
    entity that replaces another based on their mutual/shared occurrence in a given context (sign type: index)
  22. Symbol expressed relation based on...
    a learned convention, or binding between meaning and meaning carrier (form)
  23. Ethnography of communication includes analysis of
    speech habits, situational contexts, and cultural norms using in producing evaluating speech
  24. Discourse
    events of communication (utterances, communicative events, messages with social and linguistic meaning)
  25. The speech act
    minimal communicative acts employing verbal means (telling a joke)
  26. Speech event
    composed of one or more speech acts, and characterized by having specifiable rules governing the use of speech

    a joke (speech act) can occur in a lecture/formal introduction/sermon (speech events)
  27. Speech situation
    a joke (speech act) could also occur within a conversation (speech event) at a party (speech situation)
  28. Speech community shares these three things
    • Interaction
    • Knowledge
    • Attitudes
  29. Speech network
    people in a speech network have contact with each other on a regular basis

    weak networks and dense networks
  30. Ethnolinguistic approach
    anthropological technique of observing people daily to understand behavior from the participants' point(s) of view
  31. Sociolinguistic approach
    discovering patterns of linguistic variation and the dynamic connection between language and social factors
  32. Another expression referencing "phatic communion" is
    getting together
  33. We learn about other people through what they...
    say and how they say it
  34. We learn about ourselves through the ways that other people...
    react to what we say
  35. We learn about our relationship with others through...
    the give-and-take of communicative interaction
  36. Interrelationships between societal factors and language are extremely complex because (4 reasons)
    multiple factors account for linguistic differences

    sociolinguistic "rules" are actually statements of probability that can predict any single speech occurrence

    individuals are not isolates of sociological factors (person is not simply male/female, child/adult, etc.)

    Components of speech contexts influence speech
  37. Relevant features of the speech act component referred to as setting most often involve...
    Participants, location and time
  38. Another model based in part on a mnemonic to amke the components easier to remember
    Speaking model
  39. Speaking model
    • Setting
    • Participants
    • Ends
    • Act Sequence
    • Key
    • Instrumentalities
    • Norms
    • Genre
  40. Robbins Burling: Turkish beckoning gesture referred to as
    digital rather than analog in nature
  41. Burling: Human language could not have evolved from any animal-like form of communication because
    language is very different from all other animal behavior
  42. Burling: For humans, in speaking and hearing a language, sounds are...
    Digital and either one phoneme or another
  43. Blum: For expressing our emotions and intentions...
    gesture-calls are much better than language
  44. Burling: Chomsky shifted the focus of much of linguistics away from differences among languages and towards...
    the universal features that are presumed to arise because of the universal nature of the human mind; a mind specifically designed for language
  45. Blum: Our digital and propositional language requires
    much more learning than our analog and emotional calls and gestures
  46. Burling: Our massive word repertoire is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human language and humanity and this in turn depends on...
    digital code (i.e. duality of patterning, double articulation, two levels of organization)
  47. Burling: Language is
    pervasively conventional and arbitrary
  48. Burling: Syntax, with its subordination, embedding, relativization and other processes is responsible for...
    a great deal of the productivity in language
  49. Burling: Humans have more control over our language than over..
    our gesture calls
  50. Burling: Language allows for
  51. Burling: Spoken language is superior for every hearing person in that
    It makes use of the ears and mouth

    It interferes less with other activities

    Can be understood in the dark
  52. Burling: "Quotable gestures" are gestures that can be
    copied and attributed to others
  53. Burling: "Quotable vocalizations" are
    Digital (vocal segregates)
  54. Burling: Gesticulation accompanies speech and differs from gesture-calls, quotable gestures, and from manual sign language. Gesticulation's apparent oral counterpart is used simultaneously with the words and sentences of language, and is intimately related to them. It conveys less propositional information than words and sentences, but reveals more about the attitudes and emotions of the speaker. It is
    intonation (pitch, length, and loudness) that accompanies spoken language when not making phonemic distinctions
  55. Hockett: "Design features of language"
    • Vocal-auditory channel
    • Rapid feeling
    • Broadcast transmission and directional reception
    • Interchangeability
    • Total feedback
    • Specialization
    • Semanticity
    • Arbitrariness
    • Discreteness
    • Displacement
    • Productivity
    • Traditional transmission
    • Duality of patterning
  56. Hockett: "Interchangeability" means
    adult individuals both transmit and receive
  57. Hockett: Arbitrariness with respect to language structure generally means that
    new linguistic messages are coined freely and easily
  58. Hockett: If a proto-homind's limited signal system includes AB=food, and CD=danger, then if one by accident says AC, this could come to mean
    Food + danger
  59. De Saussure: The linguistic sign unites a concept and a
    sound image
  60. Pinker: In comparing the genetic code in DNA, where four kinds of nucleotides are combined into 64 kinds of codons which can be strung into an unlimited number of genes, this refers to the fact that language makes
    infinite use of finite media
  61. Pinker: In place of Robbins' use of "digital" and "analog" are
    "Discrete" and "blending"
  62. Pinker: Because grammar is a "discrete combinatorial system"
    an infinity of sentences can be produced
  63. Pinker: Markov chain models indicate that a human grammar is not and cannot be a
    finite state model
  64. Chomsky: "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously" shows that
    nonsense can be grammatical

    improbable word sequences can be grammatical, well-formed sentences in English
  65. Pinker: A sentence is a tree, not a
  66. Pinker: Words can be grouped together into phrases like
    Twigs joined in a branch
  67. Pinker: A tree is modular, like
    telephone jacks or garden hose couplers
  68. Embedding of one sentence within another (or repeated application of the same rule) is called
  69. Pinker: Grammar shows us that there is nothing we can sense that is not first...
    in the mind
  70. Pinker: Grammar is a protocol that has to interconnect the ear, mouth, and mind, three very different kinds of machine; it cannot be tailored to any of them, but must have an
    abstract logic of its own
  71. Pinker: Syntax details have figured prominently in the history of psychology because they are a case where
    Complexity in the mind is not caused by learning

    Learning is caused by complexity in the mind
  72. Stokoe: Neanderthals, because they buried the dead and put artifacts into their graves while having a one tub supralaryngeal vocal tract, probably had a
    gestural language
  73. Australian aborigines used signing as an alternative speech in normal conversations rather than only in
    limited domains
  74. Stokoe: Signing is more likely than speaking to have been the means by which language was first
    transmitted and acquired
  75. Robin Dunbar provides evidence that gossip played a significant part in
    the evolution of spoken language
  76. Dunbar: A correlation between group size (hence complexity of the social world) and relative size of neo-cortex suggests that in evolutionary terms, it was the need to live in larger groups that has driven the evolution of
    large brains in primates
  77. Dunbar: Neocortex and group size predicts a human group size of about
  78. Dunbar: Social grooming in non-human primate societies takes up
    20-30% of their day
  79. Dunbar: With humans an increase in group size came with a shift in the
    mechanism for social bonding
  80. Dunbar: Without language, one can only
    groom one individual at a time
  81. Dunbar: With language, one can socially
    groom several individuals at a time
  82. Dunbar: Language allows for social grooming while
    traveling, eating, and working
  83. Dunbar: Gossip allows for the coordination of
    social relationships
  84. Dunbar: Language may have evolved in the context of social bonding between
  85. Dunbar: Language lets us categorize people into types, so we can relate them without having to take days to work out the basis of a
  86. Who wrote the article in our reader called "The Orality of Language"?
    Walter J. Ong
  87. The communication system known as language includes (3)
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Syntax
  88. Voice set, voice qualities, and vocal segregates are part of the communicative system known as
  89. Vocal segregates include
    • Pause fillers
    • Attention getting expressions
    • Appreciation
    • Disapproval sounds
    • Back channel cues
    • Cold signaling sounds
  90. Kinesics in communication includes
    • Gesture
    • Posture
    • Facial expression
    • Eye contact
    • Walking
    • Dancing
  91. Gestures inlcude
    • Emblems
    • Illustrators
    • Affect displays
    • Regulators
    • Adaptors
  92. The study of proxemics includes
    • Distance/proximity
    • Height
    • Direction
    • Boundary markers/obstacles
  93. The study of haptics in communication includes
  94. Olfofactics include
  95. Chronemics includes
    Time sense
  96. Savoristics includes
  97. Artifacts in communicative systems includes
    • Clothing
    • House
    • Food
  98. The phonemes of a language are
    minimum meaningful units of sound in that language
  99. To say that the allophones of a phoneme are in complementary distribution is to say that the contexts of occurrence of the allophones are
    mutually exclusive
  100. Allophone sets (alternative variants) and distinctive feature bundles (additive or compositional features) are both ways of defining
  101. Prosidic features of language, aslo called suprasegmentals, operate primarily on the vowel nucleus, often affect or differentiate meanings, and include
    Stress, Length, and Pitch
  102. Morphology is the study of
    words and their structure
  103. Morphemes are generally composed of roots and
  104. Morphemes can be
    • Lexical/free
    • Grammatical/bound
    • A root
    • A stem
    • Affixes
  105. A morphological typology classifies languages as
    Isolating, agglutinating, or synthetic
  106. Syntax is the study of
    Sentences and their construction
  107. Sentences usually have
    A noun phrase and a verb phrase
  108. What articulatory parameters does American sign language employ in producing referential signs?
    • Hand configuration
    • Place of articulation with respect to signer's body
    • Movement of hands in space
    • Orientation of hands in relation to body
  109. If all human behavior is culturally constructed and all meaning culturally assigned, then a few, if any, gestures, body postures, or facial movements are likely to have
    universal significance
  110. Kendon & Frieson: Affect displays are simply facial configurations which display
    affective states
  111. Synchrony between the verbal and nonverbal streams of a speaker's language behavior is called
    Self synchrony
  112. Close matching between movements of a speaker and movements of a listener is called
    interactional synchrony
  113. While an unfamiliar gesture will cause discommunication, the false decoding of familiar gestures will produce
  114. Generally cross culturally, people of lower status in unequal encounters tend to be more
    silent than those of higher rank
  115. Silence is an act of nonverbal communication that
    Transmits many kinds of meaning, dependent on cultural norms of interpretation
  116. Among Wester Apache, silence as an act of nonverbal communication is the norm in situations of
    ambiguity or uncertainty
  117. When a Navajo speaker renders "It is only good that I go there" as the Navajo equivalent of English "I must go there," it illustrates (3)
    English speakers encode the rights of people control or be uncontrolled by other beings

    English and Navajo speakers have different attitudes about rights and obligations

    Navajo speakers give beings the ability to decide for themselves without compulsion by others
  118. English has many terms expression coercion: cause, force, oblige, make, compel, order, command, constrain, must, have to, ought to, etc. By contrast, Navajo
    doesn't appear to have words of this sort
  119. A speaker's thoughts, beliefs, and action regarding the world are encoded in their (5)
    • Lexicon
    • Grammar
    • Proverbs
    • Myths
    • Legends
  120. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: "The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different...
    labels attached
  121. Before he was a linguist, Benjamin Whorf was an
    insurance inspector
  122. The Hope language distinguishes direct sensory experience from inferred conclusions based on direct sensory experience and from reports provided by hearsay. We could call the forms involved
    validity forms
  123. Whorf contrasted Hopi with English and concluded that Hopi and English have different ways of conceptualizing
  124. A colt is
    a male pre-adult horse
  125. Cultural interest is reflected strongly in our
    naming and classification behavior
  126. Among other things the change in meaning of Tzeltal chih from "dear" to "sheep" illustrates that sheep became more important than deer over time, cultural interest can change through time, and
    language change lags behind cultural change
  127. Categories are
    an aggregate of words, all sharing a core meaning, related to a specific topic
  128. The fact that one person's "terrorist" is another's "freedom fighter" shows that naming can express cultural values and shared assumptions, reveal attitudes of speakers, and
    create compatible attitudes in hearers
  129. Degrees of specialization and principles of classification within semantic domains indicate
    cultural interest and discrimination
  130. Focal meanings of words and prototypes of categories demonstrate ways that people make sense of
    the multitude of objects and events in their world
  131. The symbolic content of language, expressed in words and in metaphoric extensions, transmits and reinforces
    complex social and cultural messages
  132. Ethnoscience refers to culturally constructed classification systems that organize knowledge of a society's world/universe (or the study of such a system), it includes Ethno-...
    Botany, zoology, medicine, astronomy
  133. If a given language has a basic color for red, it implies that the language also has a basic term for
    black and white
  134. The "best example" or "most typical" example, referring to the central sense of a word within a whole range of meaning that it has, is called the
    focal meaning
  135. An idealized internalized conceptualization of an object, quality, or activity would be the
  136. People bring their social encounters a repertory of knowledge and understandings of their culture as expressed through their language. Some, but never all, of this will also be in the repertories of their interlocutors. This repertory has been called
    cultural presuppositions
  137. The word "man" as in the English sentence "Man is only creature having language" is
    semantically unmarked for gender and number, and morphologically unmarked for gender number
  138. If a language has a special suffix on all verbs in the present tense and no affix when those verbs are in past tense, then we could say about that language that past tense is likely to be earlier in
    language acquisition and present tense is marked with respect to past
  139. The power of language is not only that values attached to words reveal attitudes of speakers, but also that words are used to create
    compatible attitudes in hearers
  140. It has been said with some validity that all language use has a manipulative aspect to it in the sense that speakers employ words in order to have an effect on hearers, such as to convey information, ask questions, or issue commands, but the effect may be amplified because the words chosen are often not
    neutral in their connotations
  141. The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another. It is one thing standing for another on the basis of
    similarity of some shared attributes
  142. A metonym involves one thing standing for another on the basis of
    contiguity and shared occurrence in some context
  143. Personification is a common type of
  144. When one says "This business needs some new blood" (and it isn't someone in a blood bank speaking), then they are using a figure of speech known as
  145. Body part terms are in many societies extended to inanimate objects and to descriptions of activities. This is usually referred to as
  146. Literacy is a system of
    secondary signs, based on an oral semiotic system
  147. Street and Besnier claim that pictographic representation is
  148. Of three presumed basic types of writing systems, it is generally thought that they evolved in the order of
    logographic, syllabic, alphabetic
  149. Chinese writing is not devoid of sound system references nor is it
    purely pictographic
  150. Viewing literacy as a sociological construct, Street and Besnier identify two models:
    ideological and autonomous
  151. Which sociologically constructed model has literacy distinguishing between "primitive" and "civilized"?
  152. What do Street and Besnier suggest should be viewed not as a monolithic phenomenon, but as a multi-faceted one, whose meaning and consequences depend crucially on the social practices surrounding it?
  153. The two statements "Speech is transient, writing is permanent" and "Speech, once uttered, can rarely be revised, or unuttered, but writing can be reflected upon, and even erased at will" suggest that they are
    seemingly contradictory
  154. Based on the studies of Liberian Vai people and rural Appalachian people, literacy is deeply embedded in, and derives its meaning from the social practices which are most clearly articulated in
    contexts of learning literacy
  155. Sequoya's syllabary is
    one "invented" literacy
  156. Heath demonstrated, according to Street and Besnier, that in the three Appalachian communities, tensions between the literacy practices of middle-class, white working class, and black working class groups reflect and reinforce
    inequality, oppression, and hegemony
  157. BL Whorf began his essay on the relationship of language to habitual behavior by explaining how some fires have been caused because
    the words "empty" and "stone" suggest to many person that combustibility is not a present danger
  158. Whorf claims that "ten days" cannot be
    objectively experienced
  159. In SAE there are count nouns and mass nouns. According to Whorf, in Hopi all nouns have an individual sense and both singular and plural forms, and there are no
    "mass nouns"
  160. According to Whorf, in Hopi terms like "summer", "winter", "morning", and "sunset" are not nouns as in English, but rather
    a kind of adverb
  161. While Hopi verbs have no tenses, Whorf insists that the three tense system of English
    colors all of our thinking about time
  162. English and other SAE languages, according to Whorf tend to
    subjectivize everything
  163. According to Whorf, the Hopi microcosm seems to have analyzed reality largely in terms of events (or "eventing") referred to in two ways:
    objective and subjective
  164. Whorf: the "quality of reality" that "matter" or "stuff" has for us may correspond to the Hope emphasis on
    preparing or being prepared
  165. Whorf: our objectified view of time is favorable to
    historicity and everything connected with keeping records
  166. Whorf avers that Hopi rarely
    gesture at all
  167. Whorf concludes that concepts of "time" and "matter" depend on the nature of one's language, there is no such striking difference between Hopi and SAE about space as about time, and "space" is probably apprehended in substantially the same
    form irrespective of language
  168. Dorothy Lee: People of the Trobriand Islands appear to favor
    pattern over lineality in their perception of reality
  169. Trobriand describe their village as "aggregate of bumps" and their language has no
    adjectives or tenses
  170. Lakoff and Johnson view "Argument is war", "Time is wasted", and "Speed is deadly" as conceptual metaphors based on
    linguistic evidence
  171. Levinson calls the widespread presumption in cognitive sciences that language is essentially innate
    "simple nativism"
  172. Hotchkiss notes that in Teopisca people take measures to ensure some degree of secrecy, houses are oriented inward, children are u
    sed as "spies" and viewed as "non-persons"
  173. Hotchkiss believes privacy and secrecy are strategies for protecting one's reputation in a small community. He further suggests that this is the basis for
    the strategic use of children to run errands
  174. Hotchkiss sees children as
    "nonperson" and therfore less likely to be seen as invading privacy or compromising secrecy
  175. Hotchkiss: a child go-between may indeed be aware of the truth, and the adult may know that the child knows, but the adult doesn't
    have to be as delicate in behavior in front of a child as they would in front of an adult
  176. When a child in Teopisca returns from an errand:
    he/she is extensively debriefed by an adult of the household to see what he/she has learned on the errand
  177. Hotchkiss considers some acts of children as
    integral to certain aspects of social relations among adults