Ap bio mini test one.txt

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Ap bio mini test one.txt
2010-09-23 17:48:32
ap bio

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  1. What kind of molecule is a phospholipid?
    An amphipathic molecule meaning it has a hydrophobic region and hyrdopphilic.
  2. What's the fluid mosaic model?
    The membrane is a fluid structure wirh varioys proteins embedded in or attached to a double layer of phospholipids.
  3. Davson danielli model
    Sandwhiched phoshoplipid bilayer betweenb two protein layers. WRONG
  4. Current fluid mosaic model
    Disperses the proteins and immerses them in the phospholipid bi layer, which is in a flid state.
  5. The core of the membrane is hydrophobic. True or false
  6. Most lipids and some proteins can drift laterally
    True rarely across center. Flip flopping
  7. What are integral proteins?
    Proteins that penetrate the hyrdophobic core of the lipud bilayer.
  8. Peripheral proteins
    Not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane
  9. Cell-cell recognition
    Cells ability to distinguish one type of neifhboring cell from another, is crucial to the functioning of an organism
  10. Hyrdophilic substances avoid contact with the Lipid bilayer
    By passing through transport proteins.
  11. Diffusion
    • The tendency for
    • Molecules of any substance to spread out into available space
  12. Function of membrane proteins.
    Transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, inter cellular joining, cell-cell recognition, and attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.
  13. Membrane carbs are important for cell cell recognition.
    Short chains of sugars are linked to proteins and lipids on the exterior side of the plasma membrane, where they can interact with the surface molecules of other cells.
  14. Passive transport is
    Diffusion across a membrane.
  15. Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake and loss.
  16. Facilitated diffusion.
    A transport protein speeds the movement of water or a solute across membrane down its concentration gradient.
  17. Active transport
    The pumping of of solutes against their gradients. Specific membrane proteins use energy,usually in the form of ATP, to do this work.
  18. Exocytosis and endocytosis used to _____
    Transport large molecules. in exocytosis- transport vesicles migrate to the plasma membrane, fuse with it, and release its contents. Endocytosis-large molecules enter cells. Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor- mediated endocytosis
  19. Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair.
    unicellular organisms reproduce by cell division. Multicellular organisms depend on it for development from a fertilized egg, growth, and repair.
  20. Chromosomes
    • - Usually in the form of chromatin
    • - Contains genetic information
    • - Composed of DNA- Thicken for cellular division
    • -Set number per species (i.e. 23 pairs for human)
  21. Nucleolus
    • - Spherical shape
    • - Visible when cell is not dividing
    • - Contains RNA for protein manufacture
  22. Centrioles
    • - Paired cylindrical organelles near nucleus
    • - Composed of nine tubes, each with three tubules
    • - Involved in cellular division
    • - Lie at right angles to each other
  23. Chloroplasts
    • - A plastid usually found in plant cells
    • - Contain green chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place
  24. Cytoskeleton
    • - Composed of microtubules
    • - Supports cell and provides shape
    • - Aids movement of materials in and out of cells
  25. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • - Tubular network fused to nuclear membrane
    • - Goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane
    • - Stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system- Smooth type: lacks ribosomes
    • - Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface
  26. Golgi apparatus
    • - Protein 'packaging plant'
    • - A membrane structure found near nucleus
    • - Composed of numerous layers forming a sac
  27. Lysosome
    • - Digestive 'plant' for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
    • - Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal
    • - Vary in shape depending on process being carried out
    • - Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
  28. Mitochondria
    - Second largest organelle with unique genetic structure- Double-layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae- Energy-producing chemical reactions take place on cristae- Controls level of water and other materials in cell- Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and forms urea
  29. Ribosomes
    - Each cell contains thousands- Miniature 'protein factories'- Composes 25% of cell's mass- Stationary type: embedded in rough endoplasmic reticulum- Mobile type: injects proteins directly into cytoplasm