Glossary terms for the marriage and family therapy exam
Glossary terms- Co-D- to help study for the marriage & family therapy exam
Concept described by Minuchin in which 2 family members form a covert alliance, either temporary or durable, against a 3rd-usually occur across generational boundaries-Coalitions create power blocks in families, which serve either to balance another coalition or establish control.
Used in information management & research, these systems establish an organized and consistent approach to identifying & county clinical phenomena.
Coercion (Aversive Control)
From behavioral family therapy, one person uses aversive stimuli to control the behavior of another
Cognitive Behavior Family Therapy (CBT)
People learn to modify behaviors both by altering the reinforcement contingencies and/or changing the cognitions that influence their behaviors & interactions. This therapy is based on both behavioral techniques-which grew out of lab experiments-and on the cognitive therapy models.
Mental models by which incoming information is perceived, understood, transformed, & stored, together with a corresponding repertoire of behavioral options. Maps are based on the integration of experiences- each part of the map -ie:input or output- forms the individual's internal representation of reality. Cognitive maps shape actions & communication-may be flexible- able to change & expand with new information, or rigid & limiting. Maps have both language & spatial aspects with a private vocabulary & imagery that determines how incoming communication is interpreted.
From Olson'sCircumplex Model- a measure of the strength of the emotional bonds between & among family members
Collaborative Couples Therapy
Couple's treatment in which each partner is seen by his/her own therapist
Collaborative Family Health Care
Bloch & his followers use teams with other medical care providers-nurses, physicians, or rehabilitation specialists- to help families cope more effectively with the consequences of medical illnesses.
Collaborative Language Family Therapy
From Goolishian & Anderson- a model of family therapy based on the idea that problems are maintained in the family's language & may be resolved by changes in their use of language. The therapist asks questions from a 'not knowing' stance, designed to draw out the client's own views of the problem. The problem is 'dissolved' as new meanings & actions evolve.
A family systems defense mechanism in which members cooperate by unconsciously sharing thoughts & feelings. The defense is used to protect family members from threatening outside forces. Example: drunk uncle is perceived by the family as a light hearted party goer.
Originated by the MRI group:the study of the process by which verbal & non verbal information is exchanged within a relationship. Communication can be analogic-having little structure, but is rich in content or digital- verbal communications perceived & interpreted based on meaning.
An interactional pattern in which members of an intimate relationship establish roles and take on behavioral patterns which fulfill the unconscious needs & demands of the other.
From solution focused therapy-1 of 3 ways to characterized the level of participation & commitment to change. This client brings a specific problem but is currently unwilling to focus on a solution.
from Satir's experiential family therapy- 1 of 5 communication styles- the computer is rational, but often attempts to sway others by referring to outside "authorities"
Concurrent Couples Therapy
Couples therapy is which one therapist works with both spouses at different times
A therapist whose stance is to be aggressive, confrontational, & charming.
Refers to the ethical obligation of the therapist to protect the client's identity & other personal information. Therapists may not reveal information without the client's consent to 3rd parties except as allowed by the governing licensing body & /or as outline in the ethical guidelines of the AAMFT,
Therapy that involves 2 or more family members- introduced by MRI psychiatrist Jackson in 1959- originally used by Jackson to describe martial therapy in which the spouse were seen together
Conjoint Marital Therapy
developed by Satir- a model of marital therapy in which both partners are seen together by 1 or 2 therapists. The treatment is designed for married couples without children & in which one or both of the partners has either a psychiatric disorder or a social diagnosis-ex: alcoholism, gambling, extramarital affair.
from narrative therapy- the view of self is plastic & continuously deconstructed & reconstructed through interactions. The sense of self derives from experiences that fit into the dominant narrative. The therapist & client co-construct a new self that is more congruent with the client's preferred outcome.
Constructivist Family Therapy
A variety of therapeutic models based on postmodern philosophy, which emphasizes the concept that a person's knowledge of the world is based on his/her perception & internal construction of the 'truth' and the belief that reality can never really be known.
A term that describes the topics that people in therapy are discussing
Contextual Family Therapy
theory & model developed by Boszormenyi-Nagy-based on the ethical dimension of family relationships. The family maintains invisible, intergenerational loyalties, which members hold in their personal ledgers. Problems in relationships are thought to result either from an attempt to maintain or change the balance sheet of what members owe to one another.
In the behavioral family therapy model- an agreement between 2 or more family members aimed at increasing mutually rewarding behaviors. The contract, which is usually written, specifies the desired behaviors each will do & under what circumstances.
A technique, introduced by Whitaker, in which 2 therapists work together as a team.
A concept from analytic theory that relates to the therapist's unconscious emotional reactions to the client which derive from the therapist's own history.
From Whitaker's symbolic-experiential family therapy-a concept in which healthy functioning for both therapists & families includes a high proportion of non-rational, creative, right-brain activity. Therapists need to be able to be irreverent, to use fantasy freely, to function at a regressed level when it serves the therapy, and to be mature enough to be immature
Crisis of Accession-Crisis of Dismemberment
From Hoffman- discontinuous changes in families, like symptom development, often occur at times of stress. Changes in the family composition are particularly demanding. There are crises of accession when someone joins the family (marriage, birth) and crises of dismemberment when members leave (divorce, death).
Cross Generational Coalition
from structural therapy-a stable coalition between a parent and a child against the other parent.
The set of shared beliefs, behaviors, values, customs, meanings, symbols, & the like , transferred from one generation to the next and from the social groups to which the person belongs (Italian, Jewish, Lesbian, etc)
Cultural Consciousness (cultural sensitivity)
Therapist's sensitivity to the existence & impact of the family's cultural rules & values. Such awareness enables easier engagement, reduces misunderstanding & misinterpretation of family member's behavior, and facilitates the development of trust. Therapists should be aware of their biases regarding the cultural background of others and their own.
from solution focused- 1 of 3 ways to characterize the level of participation and commitment to change. This client brings a problem and a willingness to work toward its resolution.
The study of how systems are controlled by information and feedback loops and the means by which they work.
A behavioral technique in which the therapist teaches the client to challenge his/her tendency to have catastrophic expectations.
The postmodern process of constructing new meanings by examining implicit assumptions.
An analytic concept describing the unconscious process by which the ego protects the person from conscious awareness of anxiety provoking, threatening thoughts and memories.
The Bowenian concept of withdrawing from an existing triangle so that the person is not drawn into the conflict between the other two, often the parents.
From Nagy's contextual family therapy- the development of symptomatic behaviors in the pursuit of self-justifying and harmful means to satisfy the perception of what is due as a result of deficient caring & responsibility in parenting. Example:parentified child wants to 'party' as an adult.
from structural family therapy-when 2 family members attempt to preserve their relationship by defining their conflict as a disagreement about a 3rd person, keeping the focus on that person rather than themselves and their problems.
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual ( DSM-IV)
The most recent edition of the diagnostic manual of the APA which provides a classification system of mental disorders & syndromes.
Differentiation of Self
In Bowenian family therapy- the separation of intellectual & emotional functioning, which results in being less reactive to family system dynamics and other members' emotional states.
Differentiation of Self scale
A scale, developed by Bowen, to measure the degree of emotional fusion with others. The scale ranges from 0, or no self, to 100, hypothetical ideal of fully differentiated.
in structural family therapy-boundaries that are not clearly defined, or maintained, resulting in blurred generational roles & responsibilities. Diffuse boundaries often lead to enmeshed relationships
Directed Masturbation Training
from sex therapist LoPiccolo- a method of treating primary inorgasmic or preorgasmic dysfunction. The woman is taught to become familiar, more comfortable with, and more accepting of her body and her sexuality. She is encouraged to explore her gentials for tactile quality then for pleasure-to use erotic materials & fantasy-to use orgasm 'triggers'- and then teaches her partner about the kind of stimulation that she finds pleasurable-throughout the program the woman is instructed to do kegel exercises-the couple is also encourage to engage is a variety of mutually pleasurable, non demanding & initially non genital sexual experiences
An intervention developed primarily by Haley & Madanes in which the therapist gives the family a task with the intent of changing stuck sequences. There are 2 types of directives- straight forward & indirect.
Straightforward-are not paradoxical, and the therapist expects the family to carry out the task as given
Indirect- are paradoxical and the therapist expects the family to resist the task
With all directives the process of negotiating relationships and behavior is more important than whether they are carried out.
From MIlan systemic family therapy-the unacknowledged power struggle between parents & the symptomatic child.
Dirty Middle (The)
from Framo's couples therapy- an impasse in treatment when couples have gained some insight about the nature of the problems and the irrationality of their demands on one another, but they still have differences as to what each want from one another and from the marriage.
Sudden, unanticipated change in family organization usually brought on by a crisis (can be therapeutically induced) which causes a change in perception beliefs or perspective. The opposite of continuous change which is gradual, evolutionary, or developmental.
From the operant conditioning paradigm, a cue that signals the availability of a reinforcer.
From structural family therapy-emotionally distant & uninvolved family members with overly rigid boundaries in which members are isolated & disconnected from one another.
From contextual theory- moves away from trustworthy relatedness.
From Guerin a follower of Bowen- a technique to help family members gain emotional distance from their problems & to become more self-reflective and less blaming. Rather than have a couple discuss their specific problems, the therapist might discuss another couple with similar problems or use films to illustrate an issue.
from structural family therapy- the process of creating emotional space, often in response to enmeshment due to diffuse boundaries.
Dominant Cultural Discourses
From narrative therapy- sociocultural norms that can become internalized and have a controlling effect one's story of oneself. In treatment these norms are personified and their impact is discussed.
Double ABC-X Family Stress Model
By McCubbin & Patterson- the extension of Hill's early work on stress which considers the cumulative effect of stress on families rather than the impact of a single stressor.
A six step concept describe by Bateson in which an individual receives contradictory commands within an important emotional relationship. The recipient of the information can neither comment nor escape a 'dammed if you do damned if you don't' situation. Researchers originally hypothesized that the double bind was a disordered family communication style that led to the development of schizophrenic symptoms.
From Madanes- a therapeutic technique in which a parent is directed to request that the child intentionally perform the problem behavior. In this way the symptom will not draw as much parental attention, and if it no longer serves a purpose it can be dropped
A temporary or permanent connection between two persons
A breakdown in the ability of a structure to achieve its goals.
From Haley's strategic model- the primary focus of treatment. Family decision making structures that do not allow the family to accomplish goals and meet the needs of family members - example: parents who have abdicated their executive function to their children.