physio GI

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Author:
HLW
ID:
36983
Filename:
physio GI
Updated:
2010-09-23 21:57:41
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GI
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Gi
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  1. 3 fundamental processes
    • motility
    • secretion
    • absorption
  2. priming factors
    depolarize smooth muscle -> GI motility
  3. Priming factors include (3)
    • distenton
    • parasympathetic stimulation
    • GI hormons
  4. hyperpolarizing factors lead to
    decreased GI motility
  5. hyperpolarizing factors include (2)
    • sympathetic stimulation
    • GI hormons
  6. What reflex control peristalsis
    andaptive reflexes
  7. release mode in paracrine vs endocrine
    • paracrine: diffusion
    • endocrine: circ
  8. Brain of the gut:
    Enteric NS (myenteric and submucosal)
  9. 2 most common neurotransmitters in Enteric Sys
    • acetylcholine (excitatory)
    • norepinephrine (inhibitory)
  10. Myenteric plexus:
    monitors...
    motor neurons connect to...
    influences GI...
    • monitors mechanoreceptors
    • motor neurons connect to muscle cells
    • influences motility
  11. Submucosal plexus:
    monitors...
    motor neurons connect to...
    influences GI...
    • monitors chemicals
    • motor neurons connect tosecretory, endocrine and mucous cells
    • influences GI secretions
  12. Parasympathetic vs Sympathetic on GI tract ->
    • Parasympathetic:
    • decrease motility
    • decrease secretion
    • increase sphincter tone

    • Sympathetic:
    • opposite
  13. primary neurotransmitter of sympathetic NS
    norepinephrine
  14. Primary neurotransmitter of sympathetic NS
    acetylcholine
  15. Primary stimulus of GI tract
    distention
  16. Peristalic Rush
    intense mucosal inflammation -> powerful/rapid peristalsis -> diarrhea
  17. Reflexes that stimulate Salivation:
    • parasympathetic reflex (CrN 7 & 9)
    • conditioned reflex (CNS-> salivary senter)
  18. Warming up phase:
    • CrN 10 activated ->
    • Vagal reflex ->
    • stimulation of stomach, SI, pancreas and bile
  19. Ruminent saliva must be ____ d/t
    alkaline d/t microorganisms in rumen
  20. Chewing is controled by (2)
    • Chewing Relfex
    • involving CrN 5
  21. Phases of swallowing
    • Voluntary
    • Reflex
    • Esophogeal
  22. Voluntary phase involves...
    tongue moving bolus to pharynx
  23. Reflex phase involves
    • touch receptors->
    • CrN 9/ ->
    • swallowing center (medulla oblangata) ->
    • soft palat lifts ->
    • larynx closed ->
    • parastalic waves
  24. Esophogeal Phase involves:
    • Bolus -> stomach
    • esophogeal sphincter relaxes
  25. achalasia:
    Megaesophogus caused by failure of lower sphincter to relax (genetic malfunction of myenteric plexus)
  26. myathenia gravis-
    acetylcholine receptor deficit/damage leading to megaesophagous
  27. megaesophagous is caused by (3)
    • Achlasia
    • PRAA
    • Myasthenia Gravis
  28. functions of the stomach (4)
    • Temp storage
    • Mixing of food w/ gatric secretions and liquification of ingesta into chyme
    • Chemical/enzymatic digestion (especially proteins)
    • Controlled release of chyme into SI
  29. Accomodation Reflex-
    Vagal relax leads to a reduction in muscle tone of proximal stomach to allow temporary storage of food
  30. Satiety is caused by
    • Suppression of Vagus
    • or
    • Stimulation of sympathetic system
  31. Mixing occurs in the ____ stomach and utilizes ______
    in the Distal stomach and utilizes retropulsion
  32. Migratiing Motility Complex:
    When fasting occurs, peristalic waves occur between the stomach and ileum and the pylorus is relaxed => to clear stomach and SI
  33. Two types of mucosa in stomach
    • Non-Glandular = cuntaneous
    • Glandular
  34. Glandular mucosa of stomach contains which cell types (6):
    • Mucus Cells
    • Parietal Cells
    • Enterochromaffin Cells
    • Chief Cells
    • G cells (Gastrin)
    • Stem Cells
  35. Mucosal layer of stomach protects against (3)
    • mechanical stress
    • acids
    • digestive enzymes
  36. What controls secretion of mucous and bicarbonates in the stomach?
    Prostaglandins, which is controlled by Local (Enteric) & Central (Vagal) Reflexes
  37. Parietal Cells release:
    • HCl
    • Intrinsic Factor
  38. Enterochromaffin-like cells secrete
    Histamine
  39. Chief Cells secrete
    Pepsinogen/Prochymosin
  40. G Cells secrete
    Gastrin
  41. What stimulates parietal cells
    • (-> HCl)
    • Acetylcholine
    • Gastrin
    • Histamine (in response to Gastrin)
  42. Instead of pepsinogin, nursing animals secrete
    Procymosin (rennin in calves)
  43. Pepsinogen release in activated by
    Low pH
  44. How can antihistamine cause anemia?
    • to HCl/Intrensic Factor release ->
    • No intestinal absorption of B12 ->
    • No erythropoiesis
  45. Empting of Chyme must be matched with
    the digestive and absorptive capacity of the SI
  46. Consequences of vomiting are:
    • Loss of Fluid (low BP and Shock)
    • Loss of K+ (weakness/hyporeflexia)
    • Loss of H+ (hypoventilation)
  47. Importance of gastrointestinal mucosa
    • barrier btw guy lumen and body
    • allows transfer of nutrients, but no chemials or bacteria
  48. What can interrupt the GI Barrier (4)?
    • Stress
    • NSAIDS
    • Ischemia
    • Infections
  49. Tx for disruptions to GI barrier
    • Reduce Stress
    • Histamine (H2) blockers
    • Proton Pump Blockers
    • Antibiotics
  50. Components of the GI Barrier (4)
    • Mucous/bincarbonate
    • Prostaglandins E2
    • Epithelial and Stem Cells
    • Bactericidal Peptides/Immunoglobins A
  51. Why is vomiting immposible in horses
    • acute angle btw esophogus and stomach
    • clamp-like structure of diaphram
  52. Vomiting is a reflex under the control of the....
    vomiting center in the brain stem

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