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2010-09-23 22:11:13
oxytocin vasopressin autonomic nervous system sympathetic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system limbic system hypothalamus

Limbic System/ANS/Oxytocin & Vasopressin
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  1. production of oxytocin
    produced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus; transmitted to posterior pituitary; released from posterior pituitary into bloodstream
  2. oxytocin release in the brain
    neurons of the posterior pituitary innervate the nucleus accumbens; dendritic vs. axonal release not determined
  3. production of vasopressin
    produced in the hypothalamus; transmitted to the posterior pituitary; affects the amygdala
  4. sexual dimorphism of vasopressin
    vasopressin = testosterone-dependent; much more widespread in male brain; produces male-typical behaviors & pair-bonding in males
  5. effects of oxytocin on social bonding
    OTKO mice have social amnesia; injection of OT rescues
  6. prairie vs. meadow voles
    prairie voles = monogomous; have more oxytocin receptors in brain; meadow voles = promiscuous
  7. V1AR
    differences in vasopressin receptor gene expression are correlated with differences in social behavior; long sattelite regions of this gene are associated with increased social attachment
  8. alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone
    stimulates oxytocin release; can pass through the blood-brain barrier
  9. limbic system
    includes the hippocampus; fornix; fimbria; dentate gyrus; amygdala; parahippocampal gyrus; cingulate gyrus; subcallosal gyrus
  10. fornix
    C-shaped structure in the limbic system that carries information from the hypothalamus to the mammilary bodies and septal nuclei
  11. mammillary bodies
    small round bodies; part of the limbic system; involved in processing of memories
  12. episodic memory
    also called declarative memory; long-term memory; involves the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe
  13. working memory
    short-term memory; involves the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  14. emotional memory
    involves the amygdala
  15. procedural memory
    motor memory; involves the basal ganglia
  16. retrograde amnesia
    loss of episodic memories
  17. antereograde amnesia
    inability to form new memories
  18. non-associative learning
    includes habituation and sensitization
  19. associative learning
    classical and operant conditioning
  20. patient H.M.
    landmark patient in the understanding of memory disorders; partial removal of temporal lobes resulted in severe retrograde amnesia
  21. roles of the hippocampus
    episodic memory; regulation of HPA axis (involved in stress response)
  22. limbic loop
    limbic system -> activation of ventral striatum -> inhibition of ventral pallidum ->less inhibition of thalamus -> activation of limbic system
  23. posterior hypothalamus
    stimulation activates the sympathetic nervous system
  24. anterior hypothalamus
    stimulation activates the parasympathetic nervous system
  25. function of the hypothalamus
    regulatory; maintenance of homeostasis; compares sensory information with set points from the cerebral cortex
  26. neuropeptides
    small neurotransmitters produced within the nuclei of the hypothalamus; act on the anterior pituitary
  27. infundibulum
    connects hypothalamus with the pituitary gland
  28. suprachiasmatic nucleus
    regulates circadian rhythm; found within the hypothalamus
  29. posterior pituitary
    neurons from the hypothalamus project directly to the posterior pituitary to induce the release of hormones (two-tiered response)
  30. anterior pituitary
    neuropeptides produced in the hypothalamus act up the anterior pituitary to induce the release of hormones (three-tiered response)
  31. magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus
    produce oxytocin and/or vasopressin; project to posterior pituitar for hormonal release; on kidney & uterus & mammary gland
  32. parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamus
    act on anterior pituitary to release trophic hormones
  33. organization of the somatic motor system
    somatic motor neurons project directly to the muscle of innervation
  34. organization of the autonomic motor system
    preganglionic motor neurons project to autonomic ganglia; unmyelinated postganglionic motor neurons project to the muscle of innervation
  35. distinguishing features of sympathetic vs. parasympathetic nervous system
    location of preganglionic neuronal bodies; neurotransmitter released from postganglionic neurons; diffuse vs. targeted outflow
  36. adrenal medulla
    located inside adrenal gland; innervated primarily by cholinergic preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system; activation evokes secretion of adrenaline/noradrenaline into circulation
  37. neurotransmitter of sympathetic ANS
    primarily epinephrine and norepinephrine
  38. neurotransmitter of parasympathetic ANS
    primarily acetylcholine
  39. cholinergic receptors
    receptor for acetylcholine; primarily found on organs innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system; include M1 and M2 receptors; binding generally leads to smooth muscle contraction
  40. adrenergic receptors
    G-protein coupled receptors that are the targets for catecholemines; primarily found on organs innervated by the sympathetic nervous system; include alpha-1 and beta-1 and beta-2 receptors; binding generally leads to smooth muscle relaxation
  41. enteric nervous system
    intrinsic to the gastrointestinal tract; not directly controlled by the CNS; modulated by ANS modulation (primarily parasympathetic)