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(1461-1498) - Italian-born navigator exploredthe coast of New
England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claimin North
(1467?-1520) -Claimed Brazil for Portugal
Big commercial center for importing and
(1487-1488) -Portuguese explorer. FirstEuropean to reach the
southern tip of Africa.
(1540?-1596)- English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships, 'singed the king beard'
involved in the fighting the Spanish armada (1588).
Sir Francis Drake
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their
own land to work as well.
(1496?-1524) - Sailed from Portugal for India.
Vasco da Gama
(1394-1460) - Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of
navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1480?-1521)- Portuguese navigator. While trying to find a western route to Asia, he was
killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522),
thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the
northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
(1552?-1618) - English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Sir Walter Raleigh
(1493) -Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1485?-1528?) - Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America.
Giovanni de Verrazano
(1585-1642)- Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French
crown. Strengthened the absolute
power of King Louis XIII.
(r. 1610-1643) -Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the
(1648-53) - Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIV.
(1602-1661) - Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in
"Sun King" (r. 1643-1715) -had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of
(1619-1683) - An advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who
managed the entire royal administration.
Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV. France became the cultural center of the world.
(1594-1665) -French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the
greatest French painter of the 17th century.
(r.1689-1702) - Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious
Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
William of Orange
(1713) -Ended Louis XIV’s attempts to gain military power and land, Marked the end of
French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Peace of Utrecht
(1651) -Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is
ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit
contract. Claimed only absolutism
could save society from constant war in which life was “solitary, poor, nasty,
brutish, and short.”
(1573-1645) -Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies
on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it
through the Court of High Commission.
He was impeached in 1640, but found not guilty of treason.
(1599-1658) -Led the Roundheads. Thought he was
chosen by God He ruled England as Lord Protector by using his New Model Army to
control the government. Eventually
he ruled as a military dictator.
(1660) -Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were
restored, established Anglican Church, courts of law and local government.
(1632-1704) -Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes
development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human
Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
(1588-1679) -Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state.
Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos.
(1689) - Stated no law could be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained
except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.
Bill of Rights
(1628) -Initiated by Sir Edward Coke it limited the power of Charles I of England. a)
could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not
imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.
Petition of Rights
(1740-1748) - European conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of
the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and
archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's
daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
War of Austrian Succession
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political
reaction and militarism.
(1713) -Issued by Charles VI of Austria to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the
A large number of soldiers in Moscow who were primarily the palace guards.
(1613-1917) - Russian royal family, started with Michael Romanov (1613) and lasted until 1917.
(1620-1688) - First man who made modern Prussia by strengthening
the army and centralizing the bureaucracy.
Frederick William the Great Elector
Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.
Established by Peter the Great in Russia, they received land and control of the peasants.
A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to
Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (r. 1701-1713) the family's possessions were
unified as the kingdom of Prussia.