Pharmacology 4, 5 and 6
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Pharmacology 4, 5 and 6
Pharmacology Chapter 4, 5 and 6
The study of the effects of drugs on the normal physiological functions of the body and how the drugs are manifested:
The method by which a drug elicits effects is known as the:
mechanism of action
Drugs produce effects through:
drug-receptor interaction, drug-enzyme interaction, and nonspecific drug interaction
Strong affinity for a receptor allows a drug to elicit one of the following reactions:
agonist, antagonist, or mixed interaction
A drug or natural substance with an affinity for specific receptor sites that produces a physiologic response, usually predictable.
A drug agonist simply stimulates or enhances the:
body’s natural response to stimulation
Drugs with ____ activity will block receptors for which they have affinity.
These occur throughout body systems and are generally considered catalysts responsible for initiating biochemical reactions.
A drug-enzyme interaction occurs when a drug:
resembles the substrate to which an enzyme usually attaches
The time required for a certain serum drug concentration to decline by 50% is termed:
biologic half-life or half-life of elimination
The ratio of the Lethal dose and Effective dose is the measurement of the relative safety of a drug also known as:
Lethal Dose (LD50) is the dose at which a drug is lethal to:
50% of the population
Effective Dose (ED50) is the dose required to produce therapeutic effects in:
50% of the population
Therapeutic Index formula:
TI = LD50/ED50 (the closer to 1, the more dangerous)
A predictable pharmacologic action on body systems other thant he action intended.
Accumulation of a drug above the safe level:
Toxicity could be caused by:
impaired metabolism or elimination
A drug-drug interaction may produce:
agonistic, synergistic, or antagonistic responses
When two drugs act together to give a pharmacologic response that is greater than the additive response of both.
Medications that affect the electrical conduction system of the myocardium:
Antiarrhythmic medications act to block:
Sinoatrial Node, AV Node, Bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers
The ultimate goal of antiarrhythmic medications is to suppress:
excess electrical conduction
Drugs that assist in lowering the blood pressure to safe, long-term goals:
Medications that are designed to eliminate excess fluid and sodium from the blood stream, thus decreasing the overall pressure within the vessels:
Overuse or improper use of Diuretics can result in:
dehydration and kidney failure
Drugs used for patients who have a history of blood clot or potential to develop blood clot, and prevent vitamin K absorption:
Drugs prescribed to patients who have experienced an acute ischemic event to their heart or brain in the past; depresses function of platelets:
Medication used to actively break up a newly formed clot:
Drugs used to treat both chronic and acute pain syndromes:
Subclasses of analgesics:
narcotics, NSAIDs, muscle relaxant, acetaminophen
Medication that stimulates cns receptors known as opiod receptors and cause a decrease in the perception of pain:
Drug that reverses the respiratory depressant effects of narcotics:
Drug used to treat pain associated with inflammation.
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen
Most common analgesic in use today; associated with liver, renal, and cardiac damage.
Medications used to block histamine from producing adverse effects such as itching, inflammation, respiratory distress, and overall allergic reactions:
A biologic amine involved in the immune response; triggers inflammatory response:
Two most common endocrine problems for which patients frequently receive treatment:
Diabetes and hypothyroidism
Primary hypothyroidism is a result of a lack of:
endogenous thyroid hormone production
Secondary hypothyroidism is due to:
removal or obliteration of the thyroid gland
Medication required by patients who have difficulty maintaining a balance between blood sugar and tissue sugar:
Patients with little or no circulating endogenous insulin have:
Insulin dependent, or type 1 Diabetes
Patients with sufficient circulating endogenous insulin but poor receptor sensitivity to insulin are termed:
non-insulin depended, or type 2 Diabetes
This drug should be withheld before and at least 48 hours after receiving radiopaque contrast agent:
Most frequently prescribed ROCM:
Iodine and Barium
Atomic number of Iodine:
Atomic number of Barium:
What type of technique is used to produce high contrast radiographs of blood vessels or the genitourinary tract?
Low KV, below 80
What type of technique is used in GI contrast examinations?
High kV, above 90
Negative, or radiolucent contrast agents, have atomic numbers that are:
With the exception of Barium, ROCM are derivatives of:
triiodinated benzoic acid
Movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane:
The number of milliosmoles per kilogram of water:
The number of milliosmoles per liter of solution:
Three categories of intravascular ROCM:
High-osmolality ionic, Low-Osmolality ionic, Low-Osmolality non-ionic
Ionic ROCM exists in ___ forms consisting of ____ and _____.
salt, sodium, meglumine
ROCM that dissociates into radiopaque anion and cation when injected into blood:
High-osmolality ionic ROCM
ROCM that does not dissociate in solution with a 3:1 ratio:
The only isomolar contrast agent in the US; has similar ratios of Na and Ca in blood:
ROCM that dissociates into osmotically active particles with a 3:1 ratio:
Intravascular ROCM consists of _____ molecules with molecular weights between ____ and ____ with ____ lipid solubility.
Large, 600-1700, poor
Intravascular ROCM does not cross ____ _____ and are primarily distributed into the ______.
cellular membranes, bloodstream
Intravascular ROCM are excreted primarily via the ___.
Excretion of Intravascular ROCM may take up to _____ for complete excretion or ____ for patients with renal impairment.
24 hours, several days
First to opacify with intravascular ROCM:
Patients with renal impairment may have much lower to no opacification in the kidneys because:
up to 50% of the ROCM may be eliminated via the hepatic-biliary system
ROCM used to diagnose and evaluate disorders of the GI system:
Three categories of Enteral ROCM:
aqueous solutions, suspensions, and tablets
Enteral ROCM solutions are prescribed when barium is:
contraindicated, such as in a patient with a perforation or after surgery
Example of Enteral ROCM solution:
Why is barium sulfate the preferred Enteral ROCM?
Because with solutions, significant dilution can occur due to high osmolality
Oral ROCM used for opacifying the gallbladder:
Tablets (Iocetamic Acid)
When are Enteral ROCM tablets given to the patient?
The evening before the exam
Consists of heavy metal chelates such as gadolinium, iron, and magnese:
Paramagnetic contrast agents
Used in identifying CNS lesions, intracranial metastases, MS and carcinomas:
Iron-containing agents are useful in identifying:
hepatic lesions and lesions associated with lymphatic tissues
Maganese Compounds have a high afinity to ____ cells and are used to identify cancers that have ____ in their matrix.