Pharmacology 4, 5 and 6

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Bilon
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37109
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Pharmacology 4, 5 and 6
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2010-10-07 20:16:02
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Pharmacology
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Pharmacology Chapter 4, 5 and 6
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  1. The study of the effects of drugs on the normal physiological functions of the body and how the drugs are manifested:
    pharmacodynamics
  2. The method by which a drug elicits effects is known as the:
    mechanism of action
  3. Drugs produce effects through:
    drug-receptor interaction, drug-enzyme interaction, and nonspecific drug interaction
  4. Strong affinity for a receptor allows a drug to elicit one of the following reactions:
    agonist, antagonist, or mixed interaction
  5. A drug or natural substance with an affinity for specific receptor sites that produces a physiologic response, usually predictable.
    Agonist
  6. A drug agonist simply stimulates or enhances the:
    body’s natural response to stimulation
  7. Drugs with ____ activity will block receptors for which they have affinity.
    antagonist
  8. These occur throughout body systems and are generally considered catalysts responsible for initiating biochemical reactions.
    Enzymes
  9. A drug-enzyme interaction occurs when a drug:
    resembles the substrate to which an enzyme usually attaches
  10. The time required for a certain serum drug concentration to decline by 50% is termed:
    biologic half-life or half-life of elimination
  11. The ratio of the Lethal dose and Effective dose is the measurement of the relative safety of a drug also known as:
    Therapeutic Index
  12. Lethal Dose (LD50) is the dose at which a drug is lethal to:
    50% of the population
  13. Effective Dose (ED50) is the dose required to produce therapeutic effects in:
    50% of the population
  14. Therapeutic Index formula:
    TI = LD50/ED50 (the closer to 1, the more dangerous)
  15. A predictable pharmacologic action on body systems other thant he action intended.
    side effect
  16. Accumulation of a drug above the safe level:
    toxicity
  17. Toxicity could be caused by:
    impaired metabolism or elimination
  18. A drug-drug interaction may produce:
    agonistic, synergistic, or antagonistic responses
  19. When two drugs act together to give a pharmacologic response that is greater than the additive response of both.
    Synergism
  20. Medications that affect the electrical conduction system of the myocardium:
    Antiarrhythmic
  21. Antiarrhythmic medications act to block:
    Sinoatrial Node, AV Node, Bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers
  22. The ultimate goal of antiarrhythmic medications is to suppress:
    excess electrical conduction
  23. Drugs that assist in lowering the blood pressure to safe, long-term goals:
    Antihypertensive
  24. Medications that are designed to eliminate excess fluid and sodium from the blood stream, thus decreasing the overall pressure within the vessels:
    Diuretics
  25. Overuse or improper use of Diuretics can result in:
    dehydration and kidney failure
  26. Drugs used for patients who have a history of blood clot or potential to develop blood clot, and prevent vitamin K absorption:
    Anticoagulant
  27. Drugs prescribed to patients who have experienced an acute ischemic event to their heart or brain in the past; depresses function of platelets:
    Antiplatelets
  28. Medication used to actively break up a newly formed clot:
    Thrombolytic
  29. Drugs used to treat both chronic and acute pain syndromes:
    Analgesic medications
  30. Subclasses of analgesics:
    narcotics, NSAIDs, muscle relaxant, acetaminophen
  31. Medication that stimulates cns receptors known as opiod receptors and cause a decrease in the perception of pain:
    Narcotics
  32. Drug that reverses the respiratory depressant effects of narcotics:
    Naloxone
  33. Drug used to treat pain associated with inflammation.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen
  34. Most common analgesic in use today; associated with liver, renal, and cardiac damage.
    Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  35. Medications used to block histamine from producing adverse effects such as itching, inflammation, respiratory distress, and overall allergic reactions:
    Antihistamine
  36. A biologic amine involved in the immune response; triggers inflammatory response:
    Histamine
  37. Two most common endocrine problems for which patients frequently receive treatment:
    Diabetes and hypothyroidism
  38. Primary hypothyroidism is a result of a lack of:
    endogenous thyroid hormone production
  39. Secondary hypothyroidism is due to:
    removal or obliteration of the thyroid gland
  40. Medication required by patients who have difficulty maintaining a balance between blood sugar and tissue sugar:
    Antidiabetic
  41. Patients with little or no circulating endogenous insulin have:
    Insulin dependent, or type 1 Diabetes
  42. Patients with sufficient circulating endogenous insulin but poor receptor sensitivity to insulin are termed:
    non-insulin depended, or type 2 Diabetes
  43. This drug should be withheld before and at least 48 hours after receiving radiopaque contrast agent:
    Metformin
  44. Most frequently prescribed ROCM:
    Iodine and Barium
  45. Atomic number of Iodine:
    53
  46. Atomic number of Barium:
    56
  47. What type of technique is used to produce high contrast radiographs of blood vessels or the genitourinary tract?
    Low KV, below 80
  48. What type of technique is used in GI contrast examinations?
    High kV, above 90
  49. Negative, or radiolucent contrast agents, have atomic numbers that are:
    Low
  50. With the exception of Barium, ROCM are derivatives of:
    triiodinated benzoic acid
  51. Movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane:
    Osmosis
  52. The number of milliosmoles per kilogram of water:
    Osmolality (weight)
  53. The number of milliosmoles per liter of solution:
    Osmolarity (volume)
  54. Three categories of intravascular ROCM:
    High-osmolality ionic, Low-Osmolality ionic, Low-Osmolality non-ionic
  55. Ionic ROCM exists in ___ forms consisting of ____ and _____.
    salt, sodium, meglumine
  56. ROCM that dissociates into radiopaque anion and cation when injected into blood:
    High-osmolality ionic ROCM
  57. ROCM that does not dissociate in solution with a 3:1 ratio:
    Low-osmolality nonionic
  58. The only isomolar contrast agent in the US; has similar ratios of Na and Ca in blood:
    Visipaque
  59. ROCM that dissociates into osmotically active particles with a 3:1 ratio:
    Low-Osmolality Ionic
  60. Intravascular ROCM consists of _____ molecules with molecular weights between ____ and ____ with ____ lipid solubility.
    Large, 600-1700, poor
  61. Intravascular ROCM does not cross ____ _____ and are primarily distributed into the ______.
    cellular membranes, bloodstream
  62. Intravascular ROCM are excreted primarily via the ___.
    kidneys
  63. Excretion of Intravascular ROCM may take up to _____ for complete excretion or ____ for patients with renal impairment.
    24 hours, several days
  64. First to opacify with intravascular ROCM:
    renal parenchyma
  65. Patients with renal impairment may have much lower to no opacification in the kidneys because:
    up to 50% of the ROCM may be eliminated via the hepatic-biliary system
  66. ROCM used to diagnose and evaluate disorders of the GI system:
    Enteral ROCM
  67. Three categories of Enteral ROCM:
    aqueous solutions, suspensions, and tablets
  68. Enteral ROCM solutions are prescribed when barium is:
    contraindicated, such as in a patient with a perforation or after surgery
  69. Example of Enteral ROCM solution:
    Gastrografin
  70. Why is barium sulfate the preferred Enteral ROCM?
    Because with solutions, significant dilution can occur due to high osmolality
  71. Oral ROCM used for opacifying the gallbladder:
    Tablets (Iocetamic Acid)
  72. When are Enteral ROCM tablets given to the patient?
    • The evening before the exam
    • Consists of heavy metal chelates such as gadolinium, iron, and magnese:
    • Paramagnetic contrast agents
  73. Used in identifying CNS lesions, intracranial metastases, MS and carcinomas:
    Gadolinium compounds
  74. Iron-containing agents are useful in identifying:
    hepatic lesions and lesions associated with lymphatic tissues
  75. Maganese Compounds have a high afinity to ____ cells and are used to identify cancers that have ____ in their matrix.
    hepatic, hepatocytes

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