202 Lungs & Thorax

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gymnastlrl
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37110
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202 Lungs & Thorax
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2010-11-13 13:49:35
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N202 Lungs Thorax
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Lungs and Thorax
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  1. adventitious sound
    sounds NOT normally heard in the lungs. if present, they are heard as superimposed on the breath sounds
  2. alveoli
    functional units of the lungs; thin walled chambers surrounded by networks of capillaries that are the site of respiratory exchange of co2 and o2
  3. acinus
    functional respiratory unit: bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli
  4. angle of Louis
    aka Manubriosternal angle. the articulation of the manubrium and the body of the sternum. continuous with 2nd rib. site of tracheal bifurcation.
  5. apnea
    cessation of breathing
  6. asthma
    abnormal respiratory condition associated with allergic hypersensitivity to certain inhaled allergens, characterized by bronchospasm, wheezing, and dyspnea
  7. atelectasis
    abnormal resp condition characterized by collapsed, shrunken, deflated section of alveoli
  8. bradypnea
    slow breathing, < 10 bpm
  9. bronchiole
    one of the smaller resp passageways into which the segmental bronchi divide.

    "iole" = small
  10. bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi with partial obstruction of bronchi due to excessive mucus secretion. sign: productive cough upon waking.
  11. bronchophony
    type of voice sound. the spoken voice sound heard thru stethoscope, which sounds soft, muffled, and indistinct over normal lunch tissue. abnormal if can be heard clearly, sign of increased lung density.
  12. bronchovesicular
    the normal breath sound heard over major bronchi (under sternum and b/w scapula), characterized by moderate pitch and an equal duration of insp and exp
  13. COPD
    functional category of abnormal resp conditions characterized by airflow obstruction, e.g., emphysema, chronic bronchitis. signs: tripod position, hypertrophied neck mm and traps.
  14. cilia
    millions of hairlike cells lining the tracheobronchial tree
  15. consolidation
    the solidification of portions of lung tissue as it fills ip with infectious exudate, as in pneumonia
  16. crackles
    aka rales. abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on insp. sounds like velcro opening. doesn't clear with coughing. produced when fluid inside a bronchus causes a collapse of the distal airways and alveoli. causes: atelectasis, pneumonia, fibrosis, heart failure, pulmonary edema.

    atelectatic crackles are not patholgic. heard when sections of the alveoli that weren't fully aerated and deflate slightly and accumulate secretions during sleep or in the elderly, expand by a few deep breaths
  17. crepitus
    coarse crackling sensation palpable over the skin when air abnormally escapes from teh lung and enters the subq tissue. causes: open thoracic injury, chest surgery, tracheostomy.
  18. dead space
    passageways that transport air, but are not available for gas exchange. trachea and bronchi.
  19. dyspnea
    difficult, labored breathing
  20. egophony
    voice sound of "eeeeee" head thru the stethoscope. abnormal if sounds like "A", sign of consolidation
  21. emphysema
    the COPD characterized by enlargement of alveoli distal to terminal bronchioles. chronic hyperinflation of lungs leads to barrel chest
  22. fissure
    narrow crack dividing the lobes of the lungs. R has horizontal and oblique. L has oblique only. Obliques terminate at 6th rib, midclavicular line. R horizontal is from 4th rib to 5th rib midaxillary line.
  23. fremitus
    tactile / vocal fremitus. a palpable vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wall
  24. friction rub
    a coarse, grating, adventitious lung sound heard when the pleurae are inflamed
  25. hypercapnia
    aka hypercarbia. increased levels of co2 in blood. the normal stimulus to breathe
  26. hyperventilation
    increased rate and depth of breathing. co2 excreted during exp, ^ alkalinity of blood. sign of acidosis.
  27. hypoxemia
    decreased o2 in blood
  28. intercostal space
    space b/w ribs. number according to rib above the space.
  29. Kussmaul's respiration
    type of hyperventilation that occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis
  30. orthopnea
    ability to breathe easily only in upright pos'n.
  31. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
    sudden awakening from sleep with SOB
  32. percussion
    striking over chest wall with short sharp blows of the fingers in order to determine the size and density of the underlying organ.
  33. pleural effusion
    abnormal fluid b/w the layers of pleura
  34. rhonchi
    low-pitched, musical, snoring, adventitious lung sound caused by airflow obstruction from secretions. heard continuously during insp and exp. clear with coughing
  35. tachypnea
    rapid shallow breathing, >20 bpm
  36. vesicular
    soft, low-pitched, normal breath sounds heard over peripheral lung fields
  37. vital capacity
    the amt of air, following max insp, that can be exhaled
  38. wheeze
    high-pitched, musical, squeaking adventitious lung sound
  39. whispered pectoriloquy
    type of voice sound. a whispered phrase heard thru the stethoscope that sounds faint and inaudible over normal lung tissue. abnormal is sounds clear and distinct, sign of consolidation.
  40. xiphoid process
    sword-shaped lower tip of the sternum

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