An elaborate system of drainage vessels that collect the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.
Lymphatic vessels, lymphatics
Protein-containing interstitial fluid.
The amount of lymph that is collected and returned to the bloodstream daily.
Two things that make up the lymphatic system.
The network of lymphatic vessels and
Various lymphoid tissues and organs
The two primary functions of the lymphatic system.
These transport any fluids that have escaped from the blood vascular system to the blood.
Lymphoid tissues and organs have these two types of -cytes.
Lymph transport is sporadic and slow. Name three things that promote lymph flow.
Pulsations of nearby arteries,
Smooth muscle in the walls of the lymphatic trunks, and
Smooth muscle in the thoracic duct.
Are lymphatic vessels considered low- or high-pressure conduits?
Lymphatic vessels are usually bundled together in connective tissue sheaths along with these.
What happens to lymph flow when there is an increase in physical activity or passive movement?
Why is it a good idea to immobilize a badly infected body part?
To hinder the flow of inflammatory material from the infected region.
The three regions where large clusters of lymph nodes are found.
In an inflammatory response, infectious microorganisms are fought off by these two -cytes.
The main cells of the immune system that arise from red bone marrow.
Two types of mature lymphocytes.
These lymphocytes manage the immune response and some directly attack and destroy infected cells.
Activated T cells
These lymphocytes protect the body by producing plasma cells.
These are daughter cells that secrete antibodies into the blood or other body fluids. Produced by B cells.
These immobilize and destroy antigens.
These phagocytize foreign substances and help to activate T cells.
Scattered reticular tissue elements found in every body organ but especially in mucous membranes and specific organs.
Diffuse lymphatic tissue
These solid, spherical bodies of tightly packed reticular elements and cells are diffuse and lack a capsule.
Lymphoid follicles, or nodules
The lighter staining center often found in lymphoid follicles.
Germinal centers enlarge dramatically when these are dividing rapidly and producing plasma cells.
These are the principal lymphoid organs of the body.
These remove and destroy microorganisms and other debris that enter the lymph from the loose connective tissue.
These activate the immune system by attacking bacteria.
Connective tissue strands of the dense fibrous capsule or each node.
Two distinct regions of a lymph node.
The superficial part of the lymph node that contains densely packed follicles. Many hold germinal centers heavy with dividing B cells.
The thin inward extensions from the cortical area of lymphoid tissue that contain lymphocytes and plasma cells.
This type of lymphocyte circulates continuously between the blood, lymph nodes, and lymph, performing their surveillance role.
Lymph enters the convex side of this via a number of afferent lymphatic vessels.
The larger sinus of a lymph node that lymph travels through as it makes it way past the cortex and into the medulla.
Efferent lymphatic vessels exit the node where?
The stagnation of lymph in the nodes allows time for what two things to occur?
Macrophages to carry out their functions.
Name five lymph organs.
Peyer's patches of the intestine
The largest lymphoid organ. In the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm, curls around the anterior aspect of the stomach.
Lymphoid organ that provides a site for lympohcyte proliferation, immune surveillance and response, and blood-cleansing functions.
Lymphoid organ that stores some of the breakdown products of red blood cells for later reuse and releases others to the blood for processing by the liver. Is a site for erythrocyte production in the fetus. Stores blood platelets.
A bilobed lymphoid organ that is located in the inferior neck and extends into the superiot throax, partially overlies the heart deep to the sternum.
Organ that secretes the hormones thymopoietin and the thymosins.
The medulla of the thymus contains these, which are concentric whorls of keratinized epithelial cells that are the sites of T cell destruction.
Hassall's or thymic corpuscles
The simplest of the lymphoid organs that form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the pharynx.
These gather and remove many of the pathogens entering the pharynx in food or in inhaled air.
A lumpy collection of lymphoid folllicles at the base of the tongue is collectively referred to as these tonsils.
This tonsil is in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. If enlarged, they are referred to as adenoids.
The two collections of lymphoid follicles that are in ideal positions to destroy bacteria in the intestine and generate "memory" lymphocytes (long-term immunity).
Five areas where ucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) organs can be found.
follicles in the walls of the bronchi
mucosa of genitourinary organs
Type of lymphoid tissue that protects passages that are open to the exterior from foreign matter entering them.