Bus & Prof Communication
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Name the two elements of communication and describe them.
First is the model of communication which is the actual verbal and nonverbal communication that takes place. Second is the communication contexts. That involves the elements such as where they are physically (physical context), their relationship (social context), the time of day, month or year (chronological context), and their backgrounds (cultural context).
What are the 3 types of noise that can affect communication?
- 1. External (physical)noise: Actual sounds that can distract the sender and the receiver.
- 2. Physiological Noise: Illness, disabilities, hearing disorders.
- 3. Psychological Noise: Forces within the sender or receiver that interfere with understanding such as egotism,defensiveness, assumptions, stereotypes, biases, prejudices, hostility, preoccupations, and fear.
What type of communication takes place when a superior gives a subordinate an order, instruction, or advice?
Name the two types of cultural outlooks on time, and their characteristics.
- 1. Monochronic Culture: They treat time like a substance. (Caucasian) US, EUROPE.
- 2. Polychronic Culture: Time takes a back seat to personal relationships. Most of the non Caucasian world
What are the characteristics of low and high context cultures?
Low context cultures use language primarily to communicate and high context cultures rely heavily on subtle, often nonverbal forms of communication.
What is a member of an individualistic culture's outlook on social concern?
They put their own as well as their immediately family's interests ahead of social issues.
Explain the values of social concerns within a Collectivistic culture
They have a tight social framework in which members of a group feel primary loyalty toward one another and the group in which they belong to.
A culture that accepts the fact that power, influence, and resources are distributed unevenly is what type of culture?
High Power Distance culture
What are characteristics of a Strong Uncertainty Avoidance culture?
In cultures with strong uncertainty avoidance, people prefer explicit rules (e.g. about religion and food) and formally structured activities, and employees tend to remain longer with their present employer.
What are characteristics of a culture with weak uncertainty avoidance?
In cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance, people prefer implicit or flexible rules or guidelines and informal activities. Employees tend to change employers more frequently.
Name the four listening styles and a brief explanation of each. (one pro and one con)
- 1. People Oriented listening is when a person is most concerned with creating and maintaining positive relationships. con: Can be too friendly.
- 2. Action Oriented listening is when someones most concerned with getting the task at hand done. con: The appear to minimize emotional issues and concerns.
- 3. Content Oriented listening is when they want to hear all the details and perspectives before making a decision. con: They can be too detail oriented.
- 4. Time Oriented listening is when someone who sees time as a scarce commodity and can keep things running efficiently. con: Can be too hasty.
Name the five barriers to effective listening.
- 1. Physiological Barriers
- 2. Environmental Barriers
- 3. Attitudinal Barriers
- 4. Sociocultural Differences
- 5. Lack of Training
What type of listening barrier takes place when someone has hearing loss, auditory discrimination, or sequencing or memory problems?
A Physiological Barrier
What type of barrier does someone have if they day dream while someone is talking to them?
A Rapid Thought Barrier
Name the 3 environmental barriers and give a brief description of each.
- 1. Physical Distractions, such as a stuffy or uncomfortable room, or a conversation going on nearby.
- 2. Problems with the Communication Channel: Listening can be difficult when the communicators lack face to face contact. (telephones)
- 3. Message Overload: Coping with a flood of information is like juggling. You can keep only a few things going at one time.
Name the 6 attitudinal listening barriers and a brief description if necessary to make it more clear.
- 1. Preoccupation: when someone has other stuff on their mind
- 2. Egocentrism: Thinking that your own ideas are superior to others ideas
- 3. Fear of appearing ignorant:
- 4. Assuming effective communication is the sender's responsibility.
- 5. Assuming that listening is passive: some communicators mistakenly assume listening is passive and that their message will be automatically absorbed like a sponge.
- 6. Assuming that talking has more advantages than listening. "Big mouths"
What two Sociocultural Differences. can be barriers to communication?
- 1. Cultural differences can include accents and egocentric barriers.
- 2. Gender differences: these take place because women tend to listen to relation messages, where men tend pay attention information on the content level. Women tend to listen to feeling behind statements and men listen for facts.
If someone just doesn't know how to listen then they lack what as a listener?
Lack of Training
Define Low Level Abstractions.
Specific concrete statements that refer directly to objects or events that can be observed.
Define High Level Abstractions.
They cover a broad range of possible objects or events and lack detail.
When I tell someone I'm from Washington and they interpret it as Washington DC, what type of equivocal term is it?
It's an equivocal term.
If I tell someone specifically that I'm from Spokane, Washington, what type of equivocal term is it?
It's an Unequivocal Term because I told them specifically and there's no room for misinterpretation.
Specialized Vocabulary within a profession.
Terms with strong emotional associations that almost act like a trigger, setting off an intense emotional reaction in certain listeners.
Someone that uses language to build relationships and show support uses what type of speech?
Someone that asks questions to build solidarity rather than out of weakness, uses what type of speech?
People who are more comfortable with speech that focuses less on feelings relationships and more on information, facts, knowledge and competence use what type of speech?
What type of language should I use in order to criticize someone without being judgmental and still say what I want.
Descriptive "I" Language.
What four things should be considered when delivering criticism?
- 1. Consider the content; Limit the criticism to only one topic, show how your criticism can benefit the recipient.
- 2. Consider the sender; choose the critic with the most credibility, make sure that the criticism is appropriate to the critic's role
- 3. Consider the relational climate; let the other person know that your specific criticism doesn't diminish your respect or appreciation for them in other areas. Accept partial responsibility accompany your criticism with an offer to help.
- 4. Consider the delivery; deliver criticism in a face saving manner; avoid sounding and looking judgmental.
List the four types of conflict and their characteristics.
- 1. The Topic at hand: topic related disagreements such as pay and other compensation, the quality of products and services, scheduling and job assignments.
- 2. The Process: Disputes of how to do something
- 3. Relational Issues: Involve control, affinity, and respect. How parties want to be treated by each other
- 4. Ego/Identity Issues: When people attack each other's person. Just cannot get along.
What are the 5 "Conflict Management Styles"?
- 1. Avoiding,
- 2. Accommodating (giving in),
- 3. Competing,
- 4. Collaborating,
- 5. Compromising
What are the 6 phases of an interview?
- 1. Define the goal,
- 2. Identify and analyze the other party,
- 3. Prepare a list of topics,
- 4. Choose the best interview structure,
- 5. Consider possible questions,
- 6. Arrange the setting
What are the 4 types of interviews?
- 1. Information gathering interview: investigative, survey, diagnostic, research, and exit interviews.
- Phases: collect background information, define interview goals and questions, chose the right interviewee
- 2. Career Research Interview: Value of personal contacts (it ain't what you know, it's who you know), choosings interviewees, contacting prospective interviewees, follow up
- 3. Employment Interview: pre interview steps
- 4. Performance appraisal interview: let's employee know where he or she stands
- Phases: review progress, discuss successes, problems and needs, set goals, review and respond to the written record
What are the purposes of "highly structured interviews"?
To gather info such as surveys and the like. A very precise format.
What type of questions open up topics and are used to initialize the interview or conversation?
Define "Secondary" questions
digging deeper into a subject. Usually more specific, detailed answers are required.
These types of questions restrict the interviewees response...
leave room for elaboration
These types of questions investigate matters of fact
Define "Direct Questions".
straight up questions such as "did you kill him?"
What are "Indirect Questions"?
Illicit information without directly asking for it.
What are "what if" questions?
What questions do you ask the interviewee about a specific account?
Critical Incident Questions
Name and define the 3 approaches to leadership
- 1. Trait approach: based on a belief that all leaders common traits
- 2. Style approach:
- Authoritarian: use legitimate, coercive, and reward power at their disposal
- Democratic: inviting members to help make decisions
- Laissez-faire: designated leader gives up power to the group and transforms it into a leaderless collection of equals
- 3. Contigency approach: the belief that the "best" leadership is flexible and changes from one situation to the next.
Name the 7 types of power.
- Position power
- Coercive power
- Reward power
- Expert power
- Referent power
- Information power
- Connection power
Define "Position Power"
One that holds a position of power has position power
Define "Coercive Power"
the power to punish
Define "Reward Power"
The ability to reward
Define "Expert Power"
comes from the groups recognition of a member's expertise an a certain area
the respect, attraction, or liking a group feels for an individual.
the ability to influence a group because of the information you posses
Define "Connection Power"
comes from connections with people inside or outside of an organization. (who you know)
What are the 4 phases of "Fisher's model of group problem solving"?
- 1. Orientation phase (Forming)
- 2. Conflict phase: (Storming)
- 3. Emergence phase: (Norming)
- 4. Reinforcement phase: (Performing)
What does the "Orientation Phase (Forming)" consist of?
testing the waters in a group
Describe the "Conflict Phase (Storming)".
members take strong stands on issues and defend them
Describe the "Emergence Phase (Norming)"
end of disagreement and solve problems
"Reinforcement Phase (Performing)" allows....?
members to accept decision and actively endorse it.
a collective group decision that every member is willing to support
The 4 factors that increase group cohesiveness are:
- 1. Spirit of cooperation
- 2. a willingness to experience temporary disagreements
- 3. a committment to listening carefully to other ideas
- 4. a win-win attitude
an unwillingness, for the sake of group harmony, to examine ideas critically.
List the 8 symtoms of "groupthink"
- 1. Illusion that the group in invulnerable
- 2. Tendency to rationalize or discount negative information
- 3. Willingness to ignore ethical or moral consequences of the group's decision
- 4. Stereotyped views of other groups
- 5. Group pressure to conform
- 6. Self Censorship
- 7. Illusion of Unanimity
- 8. "Mindguards" against threatening information.
What are the 3 general purposes for presentations?
There are 8 Organizational Patterns for presentations, name them.
- 1. Chronological
- 2. Spatial
- 3. Topical
- 4. Cause-Effect
- 5. Problem-Solution
- 6. Criteria Satisfaction
- 7. Comparative Advantages
- 8. Motivated sequence
Define a Chronological pattern presentation
arranges you points according to their sequence in time
Define Spation Pattern Presentation
organizes material according to where it is physically located, or how it is put together
Define Topical Pattern Presentation
groups your ideas around some logical themes or divisions in your subject
Define Cause-Effect Pattern Presentation
shows that certain events have happened or will happen as a result of circumstance
Define Problem-Solution Pattern Presentation
begin by showing the audience that something is wrong with the present situation then suggest how to remedy the situation
Define Criteria Satisfaction Pattern Presentation
sets up criteria that the audience will accept and then show how your idea or product meet them
Define Comparative Advantages Pattern Presentation
puts several alternatives side by side to show why yours is the best
Define Motivated Sequence Pattern Presentation
- a five step scheme designed to boost the involvement and interest of the audience.
- 1. Attention- introduce the problem in an interesting manner2. Need- make them feel like it affects them and get eager to hear a solution3. Satisfaction- prove that your situation is THE solution4. Visualization- paint a vivid picture of the outcomes5. Action- explain what listeners can do to solve a problem
Describe the 4 methods of Delivering Presentations
- 1. Manuscript Presentations- word for word written presentations
- 2. Memorized Presenations- one recited word for word from memory
- 3. Extemporaneous Presentations- planned and rehearsed but not word for word
- 4. Impromtu Presentations- an unexpected off-the-cuff talk.
Identify and define the 4 type of Persuasive Presentations.
- 1. Motivational Speeches- attempts to generate enthusiasm for the topic being presented
- 2. Goodwill Speeches- aims to create a favorable image of the speaker's cause in the minds of the audience.
- 3. Proposals- advocate that your audience take specific action
- 4. Sales Presentations- one party presents remarks aimed at persuading another to purchase a product or service
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