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What's the significance of the discovery at Folsom, New Mexico?
Proved that humans were on the North American continent about 10,000 years ago.Found giant bison, flint spear points among the bones.Also started the discovery of other major finds.Archaeologists have been able to piece together long, complex history of ancient Americans.
What's the difference between archaeology and history?
Archaeology: focus on physical objects such as bones, spear points, pots, baskets, jewelry, clothing, and buildings.History: focus more on writings- journal entries, official and public pronouncements, laws, speeches, newspapers, court cases.the difference denotes rough cultural and chronological boundary between humans studied by two groups of scholars. A boundary marked by the use of writing.
Why did humans arrive late in the Americas?
They lacked a way to travel to the Western Hemisphere because N. and S. Americas had been separated from the common landmass called Pangaea. the separation isolated it from the populated land masses.
Why was there mass extinction in the Americas?
Climate changes and Paleo-Indian hunters killing them more rapidly than they could reproduce.
How did large mammals and humans arrive in the Americas?
- 1) Humans adapted to frigid, cold environments near the Arctic Circle.
- 2) During the earth's last cold spell (25,000-14,000 to 10,000 BP) snow piled up in glaciers, exposed a landbridge between Ancient Siberia and Alaska.
What was the land bridge called that appeared between Ancient Siberia and Alaska?
What were the after effects of the crisis of 11,000 years ago?
- Mammoths and other big-game prey of Paleo-Indians became extinct.
- 1) Began to prey on smaller aniamls.
- 2) Devoted more energy to gathering wild plant foods.
- Resulted in a large variety of Native American cultures, ability to adapt to many different environments.
Characteristics of Archaeic culture of the Great Plains
- Hunted bison by using Clovis spears, stampeding them over cliffs
- Use of bows and arrows by 500 AD
Characteristics of Great Basin peoples
- Lived on shores of massive lakes and marshes.
- Caught fish with bone hooks and nets
- Killed deer, antelope, bison, rabbits, rodents, and snakes.
- Relied on plants- Pinon nuts as staple of diet
Characteristics of Pacific Coast peoples.
- present-day California, most densley settles area
- Hunter-gatherer way of life, many different tribes, languages and local dialects.
- Acorns were staple in diet.Built more or less permanent settlements.
- Caught whales nad salmon, halibut, and other fish
- Traded with people hundreds of miles from the coast
- Developed very elaborate wood-working skills, made canoes and carvings
Characteristics of Eastern Woodland peoples
- East of Mississippi River
- Stalked deer as most inportant prey.
- Gathered edible plants, seeds, and nuts- hickory nuts, walnuts and acorns.
- More or less permanent settlements
- Life expectancy of about 18 years.
- 4000 BP- added agriculture and pottery.
- Cultivated sunflowers, corn and tobacco
- Pottery used for cooking and storage, permanent settlement allowed this
- .2500 BP- started building burial mounds, social and political hierarchies
Characteristics of Southwestern cultures:
- Present-day Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado
- Agriculture, irrigation and pueblos
- Began to flourish 100 AD
- built pit houses on mesa tops
- about 1000 AD- began to move to large multi-story cliff dwelling
- Disappearance about 1130 AD due to drought
Characteristics of the Southwestern cultures:
- Used sophisticated grids of irrigation canals to plant and harvest crops twice a year
- Built sizeable platform mounds and ball courts
- Began to decline about 1400 AD
Characteristics of Mound cultures
- about 2500 BP Woodland cultures began to build burial mounds
- Suggests social and political hierarchy called "CHIEFDOM"Adena, Hopewell
- thriving trade network from Wyoming to Florida
- Mississippian culture- largest site was Cahokia
- ---more than 100 burial mounds grouped around large, open plazas
- ---qualifies Cahokia as largest settlement in ancient North America
- Dwindled about 1500 AD
What cultures inhabited the Eastern Woodland region?
- Algonquian- Atlantic seaboard, Great Lakes region, upper Midwest
- Iriquoian- occupied Pennsylvania and upstate New York
- Muskogean- Southeast, south of Ohio River, east of Mississippi river.
What cultures inhabited the Great Plains regions?
Mandan, Pawnee, Teton Sioux, Blackfeet, Comanche, Cheyenne, Crow, Apache
What cultures inhabited the Southwestern regions?
- descendants of Mogollan, Hohokam, Anasazi
- ---Athapascans: Apache, Navajo
What cultures inhabited the Pacific coast?
Chumash, Pomo, Tillamook, Chinook, Salish, Walla Walla, Cayuse, Luiseno
How did the Mexica culture become prominent?
- Empire stretched from coast to coast across central Mexico
- Began rise to prominence in 1325, small bands settled on an island in Lake Texcoco
- By 1430, asserted dominence over former allies
- Lead own military campaigns, cold-blooded warriors
What were the central values of the Mexica?
- Worshipped the god Huizilopochtli
- Warriors held the most exhiled positions in social hierarchy
- Considered capturing prisoners the ultimate act of bravery
- Priests sacrificed people to Huizilopochtli
- Believed that human sacrifice fed the sun's craving for blood, which kept the sun aflame and prevented the fatal descent of everlasting darkness and chaos
What was the relationships between conquered tribes and the Mexica?
- Collected tribute from subject peoples.
- Tribute paid in goods, not money
- Redistributed to the Mexica about 1/3 of goods from conquered tribes.
What was the social system of the Mexica?
- Nobility of Mexican warriors
- Supported by priesthood
- Posessed military and religious power to command the obedience of thousands and millions in subjugated provinces.
What was the imperial system of the Mexica?
- Mexican elite exercised their power to obtain tribute and redistribute wealth
- -- from conquered to the conquerers
- --> from the commoners to the nobility
- ---> from the poor to the rich
- Redistribution allowed Mexican society to achieve what amazed the Spaniards: huge cities, temples, teeming markets, gold and treasures.
What was the main weakness of the Mexica?
- The Mexica failed to create belief of legitimacy of its rule for subjugated people.
- High level of discontent among its subject peoples
- Spanish were able to exploit this later to conquer the Mexica