2.8 Anatomy Chapter 8

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susaneers
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37287
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2.8 Anatomy Chapter 8
Updated:
2010-09-26 19:30:51
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Bones Part II Appendicular Skeleton
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The Pectoral Girdle, Upper Limb, Pelvic Girdle, and Lower Limb
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  1. The Appendicular Skeleton
    (Overview/ Function)
    Limb bones and girdles are appended, or attached to the the axial skeleton.

    • - pectoral girdle attach upper limbs to the trunk
    • - pelvic girdle secures lower limbs
    • - upper/lower limbs both composed of 3 sections: hand/foot, forearm/leg, and arm/thigh

    - enables people to carry out wide variety of movements
  2. The Pectoral Girdle
    (overview)
    • Shoulder Girdle
    • Consists of clavicle and scapula
    • Along with muscles, form the shoulders

    - Do not completely encircle the body (scapula do not meet posteriorly)

    • Functions:
    • - attaches upper limb to trunk
    • - provides attachment for muscles that move the limb
    • Must be very light to provide mobility:
    • - only clavicle attaches to the axial skeleton, allowing scapula to move freely across the thorax
    • - socket of shoulder joint (glenoid cavity of scapula) is shallow, allowing unrestricted movement of the humerus
  3. The Pectoral Girdle
    Clavicles (be able to identify anterior/posterior view and left/right clavicle)
    • collar bone/ beauty bone
    • Slender, S-shaped bones that extend horizontally across the superior thorax anteriorly
    • sternal end: cone-shaped; attaches to the manubrium medially
    • acromial end: flattened; articulates with the scapula laterally
    • medial 2/3 is convex anteriorly, lateral 1/3 is concave
    • superior surface is smooth, inferior surface is rigid and grooved for muscle/ligament attachment

    • Functions:
    • - provides sites for muscle/ligament attachment
    • - act as braces; hold scapula and arms out laterally from thorax
    • - transmit compression forces from upper limbs to axial skeleton
  4. The Pectoral Girdle
    Scapulae
    • Shoulder blades
    • Thin, triangular flat bones located on dorsal surface of the rib cage
    • between rib 2 and rib 7

    • Has 3 borders:
    • - superior border (top): shortest and sharpest
    • - medial border (vertebral): parallels the vertebral column
    • - lateral border (axillary): abuts the axilla (armpits) and ends superiorly in a shallow fossa (glenoid cavity) that articulates with the humerus (shoulder joint)
    • - 3 corners form 3 angles: lateral angle (where glenoid cavity lies), superior angle (where superior/medial borders meet), and inferior angle (at the junction of medial/lateral borders; moves when arms are raised/lowered)
    • - corocoid process: projects anteriorly from lateral end of superior border; attachment site for biceps/ ligaments that bind corocoid process of clavicle
    • - spine: posterior prominent bone (line across scapula)
    • - acromion: flat projection at the end of the scapular spine that articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle
    • - infraspinous fossae: cavity below the spine
    • - supraspinous fossae: cavity above the spine
  5. The Upper Limb (30 bones)
    Arm
    • The humerus is the only bone of the arm.
    • Articulates with the scapula at the shoulder and with the radius and ulna at the elbow.

    • Bone markings:
    • - head: hemispherical projection at proximal end; fits into glenoid cavity of the scapula
    • - greater tubercle: lateral projection opposite of the head
    • - lesser tubercle: smaller, medial projection, separated from greater tubercle via intertubercular sulcus
    • - deltoid tuberosity: V-shaped roughened area mid-way down the shaft on lateral side; attachment site for the deltoid muscle of the shoulder
    • - trochlea: medial "hour-glass" projection that articulates with the ulna
    • - capitulum: "small head" rounded projection on lateral side that articulates with the radius
    • - medial and lateral epicondyles: projections that flank the trochlea and capitulum; serve as attachment sites for muscles of the forearm.
    • - olecranon fossa: deep fossa on posterior surface, proximal to the trochlea
  6. The Upper Limb
    Forearm: Ulna
    • Ulna "elbow"
    • - slightly longer than the radius; main bone forming elbow joint
    • - olecranon process: "elbow"; most proximal process, separated from the coronoid process "crown-shaped" via a deep concavity (trochlear notch); These two grip the trochlea of the humerus
    • - radial notch: smooth depression on the lateral side of the coronoid process; where head of radius articulates
    • - head of ulna: knoblike projection that articulates with the radius distally
    • - styloid process: distal point medial to the head of the ulna, attachment point for ligaments extending to the wrist
  7. The Upper Limb
    Forearm: Radius
    • Radius "spoke" or "ray"
    • Thin at proximal end, widened at distal end (opposite of ulna)
    • - head: proximal projection shaped like a spool of thread; superior surface articulates with capitulum of humerus; medially articulates with the ulna.
    • - radial tuberosity: rough bump distal to the head; attachment site of biceps muscle
    • - styloid process: distal lateral process that anchors a ligament that runs to the wrist
  8. The Upper Limb
    Hand: Carpus
    • "wrist"; 8 marble-sized short bones, arranged in two irregular rows of four bones each
    • In proximal row, from lateral to medial (thumb to pinky):
    • scaphoid (boat-shaped), lunate (moon-like), triquetrum (triangular), and pisiform (pea-shaped)
    • - only the scaphoid and lunate bones articulate with the radius to form the wrist joint

    • In distal row, from thumb to pinky:
    • trapezium (little table), trapezoid (four-sided), capitate (head-shaped), and hamate (hooked)

    "Sally Left The Party To Take Carmen Home"

    *scaphoid is the most frequently fractured carpal bone
  9. The Upper Limb
    Hand: Metacarpus

    • Five small long bones; radiate distally from the wrist to form the palm of the hand.
    • Numbered 1 to 5 from thumb to pinky
    • - bases articulate with carpals proximally
    • - heads articulate with phalanges distally

    *Metacarpal I (thumb) is shortest and most mobile
  10. The Upper Limb
    Hand: Phalanges of the Fingers

    The digits, or fingers; miniature long bones numbered 1 to 5 beginning with the thumb (pollex)

    • Three parts: proximal, medial, distal
    • - except thumb (pollex): only has proximal and distal
  11. The Pelvic Girdle
    (Overview)
    • Hip girdle
    • - attaches lower limbs to the spine
    • - supports the visceral organs of the pelvis
    • attaches to the axial skeleton by some of the strongest ligaments of the body
    • - deep socket secures femur restricting some movement, but provides stability

    • Consists of two hip (coxal) bones
    • During childhood, it consists of three bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis that are fused in adulthood.
    • - At the Y-shaped junction is the acetabulum, a deep hemispherical socket that receives the ball-shaped head of the femur.

    • False (greater) Pelvis: superior to pelvic brim; bounded by alae of iliac bones; part of abdomen and contains abdominal organs
    • True (lesser) Pelvis: lies inferior to the pelvic brin; forms a deep bowl and houses the pelvic organs (reproductive organs)
  12. The Pelvic Girdle
    Ilium
    • a large, flaring bone that forms the superior region of the hip bone.
    • Consists of inferior body and superior winglike ala.
    • - iliac crest: the thickened superior margin of the ala where many muscles attach; thickest at the tubercle of the iliac crest
    • - iliac fossa: broad concavity on internal surface of the iliac ala
    • - posterior to iliac fossa is the auricular surface that articulates with the sacrum, forming the sacroiliac joint, where the weight of the body is transmitted from the vertebral column to the pelvis
  13. The Pelvic Girdle
    Ischium
    • Forms posteroinferior region of the hip bone.
    • Roughly L-shaped or like an arc, has a thicker superior body and a thinner inferior ramus.
    • - ischial tuberosity: rough and thickened protrusion on the inferior surface of the ischial body; strongest parts of the hip bone; where seated weight is entirely borne; also attachment site for hamstring muscles
  14. The Pelvic Girdle
    Pubis
    • pubis ("sexually mature")
    • Forms anterior region of the hip bone
    • Bladder rests upon it; essentially V-shaped with inferior/superior rami
    • - obdurator foramen: "closed up" a large hole between the pubis and ischium; almost completely closed by fibrous membrane
    • - pubic symphysis: fibrocartilage between the left and right pubis bones
  15. The Lower Limb
    Thigh
    • The femur is the single bone of the thigh.
    • Courses medially as it descends toward the knee (closer to body's center of gravity); more pronounced in women because of wider pelvis = more knee injuries in female athletes.

    • - head: rounded proximal protrusion, contains fovea capitis where a ligament attaches to the hip bone; carried on angled neck, most susceptible to fractures resulting in a "broken hip"
    • - lateral greater trochanter and posteromedial lesser trochanter are sites for muscle attachment, interconnected by intertrochanter line/crest.
    • - medial and lateral epicondyles: most raised points in the condyles; where muscles and ligaments attach
    • - patellar surface (groove): articulates the kneecap (patella), between the two condyles
    • - patella: "small pan"; triangular sesamoid bone enclosed in tendon; secures quadriceps muscles to tibia, protects knee joint and improves leverage of thigh muscles
  16. The Lower Limb
    Leg: Tibia
    "shinbone"; receives weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot; second to femur in size and strength

    • - lateral and medial condyles at proximal end that articulate with the condyles of the femur; separated by intercondylar eminence
    • - tibial tuberosity: inferior to the condyles, on anterior surface; attachment site of patellar ligaments
    • - medial malleolus: medial to flat, joint surface at distal end of tibia; forms medial bulge of ankle
    • - crest of tibia: anterior crest/border
  17. The Lower Limb
    Leg: Fibula
    • "pin"; thin long bone with two expanded ends.
    • - head: superior end
    • - lateral malleolus: inferior end; forms lateral bulge of ankle and articulates with the talus bone of the foot; does not bear weight, origin site of several muscles
  18. The Lower Limb
    Foot (Functions)
    • Supports the weight of the body
    • Acts as a lever to propel the body forward during walking or running
  19. The Lower Limb
    Foot: Tarsus
    • Tarsus makes up posterior half of the foot.
    • Composed of 7 tarsal bones: (two of which carry the weight of the body)
    • - talus "ankle": articulates with the tibia and fibia superiorly, inferiorly to the calcaneus
    • - calcaneus "heel bone": forms the heel of the foot; thick tendon of the calf muscles attach to the posterior surface; calcaneal tuberosity touches the ground

    Other tarsal bones: cuboid, navicular, medial, intermediate, lateral cuneiforms
  20. The Lower Limb
    Foot: Metatarsus
    • Consists of five small long bones numbered 1 to 5 beginning on medial side (big toe)
    • - First metatarsal at the base of the big toe is the largest; important for supporting body weight
    • - Distally articulates with the phalanges of the toes; enlarged head of first metatarsal forms the "ball" of the foot.
  21. The Lower Limb
    Foot: Phalanges of the Toes
    • 14 phalanges of the toes
    • - smaller than those of the fingers; less nimble
    • - three phalanges in each digit, except hallux (big toe): proximal, middle, distal

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