art section 4
Card Set Information
art section 4
art section 4
772. What kind of structure transformed American cities in the 1930s?
773. What goal spurred the construction of skyscrapers in New York City during the 1930s?
constructing the world’s tallest building (UARG:71,1,1)
774. two technological advances that allowed the construction of skyscrapers
the safety elevator and steel construction (UARG:71,1,1)
775. William Le Baron Jenney
a 19th century architect often credited with the first skyscraper (UARG:71,1,3)
776. the Home Insurance Building
a Chicago building often considered the first skyscraper (UARG:71,2,0)
777. advantage of skyscrapers for patrons
making the most of limited acreage (UARG:71,1,2)
778. the Wainwright Building
an early skyscraper located in St. Louis (UARG:71,2,0)
779. Louis Sullivan
a 19th century architect who pioneered skyscrapers (UARG:71,2,0)
780. two goals of early skyscraper architects
the illusion of lightness and the clarity of function through form (UARG:71,2,0)
781. “traditional” skyscrapers
skyscrapers built following World War I with new types of profiles and historical references (UARG:71,2,1)
782. What government ordinance led to the change in skyscraper profiles after World War I?
had to have setbacks at the top to allow light and air to reach street level (UARG:71,2,2)
783. What feature did skyscraper architects incorporate after World War I to allow light and air to reach street level?
decorative crown structures (UARG:71,2,2)
784. the Chicago Tribute Tower
a 1920s skyscraper in the traditional style (UARG:71,2,3)
785. What part of a traditional skyscraper reflects older architectural styles?
the detailing (UARG:71,2,3)
786. Howells and Hood
the architectural firm that built the Chicago Tribune Tower (UARG:71,2,3)
787. To what older architectural style does the Chicago Tribune Tower refer?
788. modern skyscrapers
skyscrapers built in the 1930s that deliberately rejected historical references (UARG:72,1,1)
789. focus of the modern style of skyscraper architecture
unifying form and function (UARG:72,1,1)
790. Art Nouveau
a decorative style that uses plants, flowers, and other organic forms (UARG:72,1,2)
791. Art Deco
a decorative style that emphasized hard‐edged, abstracted forms (UARG:72,1,2)
792. event at which Art Deco first emerged
Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes (UARG:72,2,0)
793. style moderne
the European term for Art Deco (UARG:72,2,0)
794. decorative style of the Chrysler Building
Art Deco (UARG:72,2,1)
795. four structures in which Art Deco was most popular
hotels, diners, movie houses, and skyscrapers (UARG:72,2,1)
796. Gregory Johnson
architect who designed the Empire State Building (UARG:73,1,1)
797. Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon
architectural firm that designed the Empire State Building (UARG:73,1,1)
798. address of the Empire State Building
350 5th Avenue (UARG:73,1,1)
799. Homer Gage Balcom
a structural engineer who helped design the Empire State Building (UARG:73,1,1)
800. the Reynolds Building
a skyscraper by the same firm that designed the Empire State Building (UARG:73,1,1)
801. building that previously occupied the location of the Empire State Building
the Waldorf‐Astoria Hotel (UARG:73,2,0)
802. number of floors in the Empire State Building
803. height of the Empire State Building excluding the pinnacle
1,239 feet (UARG:73,2,0)
804. four materials used in the exterior of the Empire State Building
Indiana limestone, granite, aluminum, and chrome‐nickel steel (UARG:73,2,0)
805. What aspect of the Empire State Building’s construction allowed for many windows?
steel frame (UARG:73,2,1)
806. What aspect of the Empire State Building creates the impression of even greater height?
setbacks relatively close to ground level (UARG:74,1,1)
807. length of the Empire State Building’s construction
1 year and 45 days (UARG:74,1,2)
808. number of people who worked on the construction of the Empire State Building
809. John Jacob Faskob
the man who financed the Empire State Building (UARG:74,1,3)
810. total cost of constructing the Empire State Building
811. Why was the Empire State Building not profitable upon completion?
the Great Depression made finding renters difficult (UARG:74,1,3)
812. What feature of the Empire State Building enjoyed immediate popularity with the public?
the observation deck (UARG:74,1,3)
813. Who officially unveiled the Empire State Building?
President Herbert Hoover (UARG:74,1,4)
814. How did Herbert Hoover unveil the Empire State Building?
pressing a button in the White House that turned on its lights (UARG:74,1,4)
815. What feature was added to the Empire State Building in the 1960s?
816. How did private building construction help the economy in the 1930s?
provided temporary employment (UARG:74,2,2)
817. Civilian Conservation Corps
a Depression‐era government agency responsible for construction projects in public parks (UARG:74,2,2)
818. Tennessee Valley Authority
a government agency responsible for creating jobs and new energy sources in the South (UARG:74,2,3)
819. two types of construction projects undertaken by the Tennessee Valley Authority
building bridges and dams (UARG:74,2,3)
820. What goal did the Tennessee Valley Authority hope to achieve by building bridges and dams?
controlling and harnessing the power of waterways (UARG:74,2,3)
821. Why did the Tennessee Valley Authority’s construction projects extend beyond just building bridges and dams?
new towns had to be built to house the workers (UARG:74,2,3)
822. How did the completed projects of the Tennessee Valley Authority stimulate the economy?
access to electricity allowed further industrial development (UARG:74,2,3)
823. What kind of structures did the Works Progress Administration construct and improve?
structures for public use (UARG:74,2,3)
824. tallest New York City skyscraper
Empire State Building (UARG:73,1,1)
825. On what river is the Hoover Dam located?
Colorado River (UARG:75,2,1)
826. Between what TWO states is the Hoover Dam located?
Arizona and Nevada (UARG:75,2,1)
827. Hoover Dam
a massive dam built during the Great Depression (UARG:75,2,1)
828. What distinction did Hoover Dam hold when it was completed?
largest dam in the world (UARG:75,2,1)
829. height of Hoover Dam
726.4 feet (UARG:75,2,1)
830. How tall is the ornamentation on top of Hoover Dam?
40 feet (UARG:75,2,1)
831. structure used for Hoover Dam
arch‐gravity structure (UARG:75,2,2)
832. material used in Hoover Dam
833. construction process used for Hoover Dam
concrete blocks placed in vertical towers (UARG:75,2,2)
834. time taken to construct Hoover Dam
almost 2 years (UARG:75,2,2)
835. How much concrete was used to construct Hoover Dam?
4 million cubic yards (UARG:75,2,2)
836. How was the concrete used to construct Hoover Dam cooled?
iced water circulating through pipes (UARG:75,2,2)
837. What style of ornamentation characterizes Hoover Dam?
Art Deco (UARG:75,2,3)
838. What general shape does Hoover Dam describe?
a curve (UARG:75,2,3)
839. Gordon Kaufmann
architect who designed Hoover Dam (UARG:75,2,4)
840. region in which Gordon Kaufmann worked
southern California (UARG:75,2,4)
841. nationality of Gordon Kaufmann
842. What government agency drew up the basic plans for Hoover Dam?
the Bureau of Reclamation (UARG:75,2,4)
843. What aspect of Hoover Dam did the Bureau of Reclamation plan?
844. aesthetic purpose of Hoover Dam’s water intake towers
giving a sense of verticality (UARG:75,2,5)
845. What kind of appearance were the simple, clean lines of Hoover Dam meant to evoke?
846. Under which president was the Hoover Dam completed?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (UARG:75,2,6)
847. Which government official began the planning for the construction of Hoover Dam?
Herbert Hoover (UARG:75,2,6)
848. What post did Herbert Hoover hold when the planning for Hoover Dam was begun?
Secretary of Commerce (UARG:76,1,0)
849. Under which president was the planning for Hoover Dam begun?
Warren Harding (UARG:76,1,0)
850. What engineering problem did the builders of Hoover Dam face?
getting the concrete to cool and set properly (UARG:75,2,2)
851. the seven Basin states
Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, California, Utah, and Wyoming (UARG:76,1,0)
852. original name of the Hoover Dam
Boulder Canyon Project (UARG:76,1,0)
853. Which president approved the Boulder Canyon Project?
Calvin Coolidge (UARG:76,1,0)
854. originally planned location of Hoover Dam
Boulder Canyon (UARG:76,1,0)
855. Where was Hoover Dam moved to during its planning stages?
Black Canyon (UARG:76,1,0)
856. How far is Black Canyon from Boulder Canyon?
8 miles (UARG:76,1,0)
857. company contracted to build Hoover Dam
Six Companies, Inc. (UARG:76,1,1)
858. What ancillary project was Six Companies, Inc. contracted for in addition to Hoover Dam?
building a town to house the workers (UARG:76,2,0)
859. Where did the Hoover Dam workers live while Boulder City was under construction?
in camps (UARG:76,2,0)
860. Why did construction begin on the Hoover Dam before Boulder City was finished?
the need for jobs during the Great Depression (UARG:76,2,0)
861. In what TWO ways did the need for workers’ housing create more jobs?
housing construction and production of extra building materials (UARG:76,2,0)
862. What incidental benefit did the existence of worker towns provide?
fewer homeless people around building sites (UARG:76,2,0)
863. For what purpose was the Hoover Dam first proposed?
a way to share water resources between the Basin states (UARG:76,1,0)
864. three names given to the Hoover Dam
the Boulder Canyon Project, Boulder Dam, and Hoover Dam (UARG:77,1,1)
865. Why did the Roosevelt Administration refuse to accept the name “Hoover Dam”?
reluctant to acknowledge Herbert Hoover’s contribution (UARG:71,1,1)
866. When was the name “Hoover Dam” officially accepted?
after Franklin Roosevelt’s death (UARG:71,1,1)
867. What industrial phenomenon led to higher rates of homelessness during the Great Depression?
a sharp decline in housing construction (UARG:77,1,2)
868. How did homeless people in urban centers find shelter?
living together in shantytowns (UARG:77,1,3)
a colloquial name for the shantytowns of the Great Depression (UARG:77,1,3)
870. Why were Depression‐era shantytowns known as “Hoovervilles”?
many considered Herbert Hoover the cause of the stock market crash (UARG:77,1,3)
871. two major dangers associated with Hoovervilles
poor sanitation and unsound structures (UARG:77,1,4)
872. two reasons the government could not shut down Hoovervilles
dense population and lack of alternatives (UARG:77,2,0)
873. two reasons soup kitchens and shelters could not adequately provide for the homeless during the Great Depression
lack of funding and space (UARG:77,2,0)
874. Federal Housing Administration
a Depression‐era government agency dedicated to encouraging new construction (UARG:77,2,1)
875. government agency that incorporated the Federal Housing Administration in the 1960s
Housing and Urban Development (UARG:77,2,1)
876. How does Housing and Urban Development help homebuyers?
providing low‐interest loans (UARG:77,2,1)
877. Division of Subsistence Homesteads
a Depression‐era government agency responsible for creating model communities outside metropolitan centers (UARG:77,2,2)
878. Greenbelt, Maryland
a planned community initiated in 1935 and settled in 1937 (UARG:77,2,2)
879. What THREE benefits did model communities provide during the Great Depression?
shelter, jobs, and farms (UARG:77,2,2)
880. What purpose did the farms of model communities play during the Great Depression?
supplying fruits and vegetables to nearby cities (UARG:77,2,2)
881. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
a Depression‐era government agency that included the Division of Subsistence Homesteads (UARG:77,2,2)
882. In what United States city was the first federally funded public housing project built?
883. What United States government agency supported the first federally funded public housing project?
the Works Progress Administration (UARG:78,1,1)
884. the Jane Addams Homes
the first federally funded public housing project in the United States (UARG:78,1,1)
885. purpose of the Jane Addams Homes
providing homes and social services to struggling residents (UARG:78,1,1)
886. What goal do public housing projects in densely populated areas have to fulfill?
providing basic shelter to a maximum number of people within a limited space (UARG:78,1,1)
887. What style of construction is used by public housing projects in densely populated areas?
basic, solid construction with few frills (UARG:78,1,1)
a famous home designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (UARG:78,1,2)
889. Frank Lloyd Wright
an innovative 20th century architect (UARG:78,1,3)
890. How was “Fallingwater” unusual for a Depression‐era home?
was a vacation home (UARG:78,1,3)
891. What social phenomenon is illustrated by Depression‐era vacation homes like “Fallingwater”?
the disparity between economic classes in the 1930s (UARG:78,1,3)
892. number of buildings designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
about 400 (UARG:78,1,3)
893. two aspects of design Frank Lloyd Wright worked with
architecture and interior design (UARG:78,1,3)
894. How did Frank Lloyd Wright combine his interest in interior design with his architecture?
customized furnishings for his buildings (UARG:78,1,3)
895. Prairie School
an architectural movement associated with Frank Lloyd Wright’s early career (UARG:78,1,3)
896. What term best describes Frank Lloyd Wright’s later work?
897. foreign architectural influence on Frank Lloyd Wright’s later work
traditional Japanese architecture (UARG:78,1,3)
898. two reasons Frank Lloyd Wright’s later work is considered “organic”
efforts to harmonize his buildings with nature and frequently opening up spaces in his buildings (UARG:78,1,3)
899. Frank Lloyd Wright’s state of birth
900. university that Frank Lloyd Wright attended
University of Wisconsin (UARG:78,2,1)
901. famous architect who employed Frank Lloyd Wright during the 1880s
Louis Sullivan (UARG:78,2,1)
902. Why did Frank Lloyd Wright leave Louis Sullivan’s architectural firm?
Sullivan discovered that Wright was taking commissions on the side. (UARG:78,2,1)
903. city in which Frank Lloyd Wright began his career
904. Catherine Tobin
Frank Lloyd Wright’s first wife (UARG:78,2,1)
905. town Frank Lloyd Wright moved to after leaving Louis Sullivan’s architectural firm
Oak Park (UARG:78,2,1)
906. city in which the Prairie School was based
907. What external architectural feature characterized the Prairie School?
low, sweeping profiles (UARG:78,2,2)
908. Which region’s landscape did the Prairie School attempt to evoke through its architecture?
the Midwest (UARG:78,2,2)
909. What internal architectural feature characterized the Prairie School?
open interior plans (UARG:78,2,2)
910. What type of materials did the Prairie School prefer?
local, natural materials (UARG:78,2,2)
911. two criteria the Prairie School considered in selecting materials
practical function and aesthetic appeal (UARG:78,2,2)
912. the Robie House
a Frank Lloyd Wright building in the Prairie School style (UARG:78,2,2)
913. neighborhood in which the Robie House is located
Hyde Park (UARG:78,2,2)
914. Mamah Cheney
a woman with whom Frank Lloyd Wright had an affair (UARG:78,2,3)
915. number of children Frank Lloyd Wright had
916. region to which Frank Lloyd Wright and Mamah Cheney travelled in 1909
917. the Wasmuth Portfolio
a collection of designs Frank Lloyd Wright published in Europe (UARG:78,2,3)
918. How did Frank Lloyd Wright’s affair with Mamah Cheney affect his Chicago business?
no longer willing to hire him (UARG:78,2,3)
919. town in which Frank Lloyd Wright settled with Mamah Cheney
Spring Green, Wisconsin (UARG:78,2,4)
Frank Lloyd Wright’s home in Spring Green, Wisconsin (UARG:79,1,0)
921. What tragic event occurred for Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin in 1914?
A servant murdered Mamah Cheney and her children with an ax. (UARG:79,1,0)
922. Miriam Noel
Frank Lloyd Wright’s second wife (UARG:79,1,0)
923. Olga Ivanovna Lazovich
Frank Lloyd Wright’s third wife (UARG:79,1,0)
924. location of Fallingwater
Bear Run, Pennsylvania (UARG:79,1,1)
925. What magazine featured Fallingwater as a cover in 1938?
Time magazine (UARG:79,1,1)
926. family that owned Fallingwater
the Kaufmann family (UARG:79,1,2)
927. Which member of the Kaufmann family introduced them to Frank Lloyd Wright?
their son, Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. (UARG:79,1,2)
928. How did Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. meet Frank Lloyd Wright?
studied with Wright in Wisconsin (UARG:79,1,2)
929. city in which the Kaufmann family lived
930. How is the waterfall perceptible inside Fallingwater?
is audible (UARG:79,2,0)
931. Why did Frank Lloyd Wright make the waterfall audible inside Fallingwater?
allowing the residents to live with the waterfall in addition to seeing it (UARG:79,2,0)
932. Who advised Frank Lloyd Wright not to built Fallingwater over a waterfall?
structural engineers (UARG:79,2,0)
933. source of the stone used in Fallingwater
local quarries (UARG:79,2,1)
934. What kind of structure is evoked by the low ceilings of Fallingwater?
a cave (UARG:79,2,1)
935. most famous view of Fallingwater
from across the falls looking up (UARG:80,1,2)
936. What contrast is evoked by the concrete cantilevers and stone mullions of Fallingwater?
earth and trees (UARG:80,1,2)
937. What limitation did Frank Lloyd Wright recognize in his work as he designed Fallingwater?
only available to the elite (UARG:80,1,4)
938. Broadacre City
a model city designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (UARG:80,1,4)
939. Usonian houses
small, inexpensive single‐family homes designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (UARG:80,1,4)
940. For what social class were Usonian houses intended?
middle class (UARG:80,1,4)
941. purpose of designing Usonian houses
making economical homes (UARG:80,1,4)
942. Unity Temple
a famous Frank Lloyd Wright church (UARG:80,2,0)
943. Johnson Wax Research Tower
a famous Frank Lloyd Wright building (UARG:80,2,0)
944. the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
a famous Frank Lloyd Wright museum (UARG:80,2,0)
945. age at which Frank Lloyd Wright passed away
946. Sears Modern Homes
economical kit homes sold through the Sears, Roebuck and Company catalogue (UARG:80,2,1)
947. How were Sears Modern Homes shipped to buyers?
948. Who was responsible for transporting the kit for a Sears Modern Home from the train station?
the buyer (UARG:80,2,1)
949. How did a buyer construct a Sears Modern Home?
followed steps in the instructional booklet included (UARG:80,2,1)
950. Why were Sears Modern Homes accessible to the general public?
constructing them required little technical expertise (UARG:80,2,2)
951. type of framing used in Sears Modern Homes
balloon framing (UARG:80,2,2)
952. For what TWO reasons did Sears Modern Homes use balloon framing?
easy to construct and leaves little room for error (UARG:80,2,2)
953. roofing material used in Sears Modern Homes
asphalt shingles (UARG:80,2,2)
954. the Winona
a bungalow‐style Sears Modern Home (UARG:80,2,3)
955. line of Sears Modern Homes including the Winona
Honor‐Bilt line (UARG:80,2,3)
956. number of stories in the Winona
957. number of bathrooms in the Winona
958. two possible numbers of bedrooms in the Winona
2 or 3 (UARG:81,1,0)
959. two possible numbers of stories in a bungalow
1 or 1.5 (UARG:82,1,0)
960. two external features of a bungalow
low pitched roof and large, covered front porch (UARG:82,1,0)
961. interior feature used in bungalows to maximize space
built‐in furnishings (UARG:82,1,1)
962. three rooms typically integrated in a bungalow
kitchen, living room, and dining area (UARG:82,1,1)
963. functions of the two sides of the Winona
one half is devoted to communal living and the other to private life (UARG:82,1,2)
964. a key selling point for the Honor‐Bilt line of Sears Modern Homes
the use of high‐quality “clear” woods (UARG:82,1,3)
965. Which parts of the houses in the Sears Modern Homes Honor‐Bilt line used woods like oak and maple?
rooms where guests would be received (UARG:82,1,3)
966. Which parts of the houses in the Sears Modern Homes Honor‐Bilt line used pine?
967. three lines of Sears Modern Homes
Honor‐Bilt, Standard Built, and Simplex Sectional (UARG:82,1,4)
968. highest quality Sears Modern Homes line
969. lowest quality Sears Modern Homes line
Simplex Sectional (UARG:82,2,0)
970. For what purpose were many Simplex Sectional homes used?
vacation homes (UARG:82,2,0)
971. price range for Honor‐Bilt homes
972. number of kit homes sold by mail order by Sears, Roebuck and Company