APUSH IDS 2.txt
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Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal governthent power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles� weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn�t keep the country united. The Articles� only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Northwest Ordinance, 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest Territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood. Outlawed slavery in the Territory, symbolically important but practically of little immediate effect.
Occurred in the winter of 1786-87 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren�t working effectively.
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state�s representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
Slavery and the Constitution: slave trade, 3/5 Clause
The South�s slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population for purposes of congressional representation.
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the States, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several States.
The Federalist Papers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Alexander Hamilton�s Program: ideas, proposals, reasons for it
Designed to pay off the U.S.�s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.�s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the States during the war.
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