Histo CT

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Author:
pjrichardson23
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37403
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Histo CT
Updated:
2010-09-26 12:17:43
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pt623
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Description:
Introduction to Connective Tissue
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  1. What are the main functions of Connective Tissue?
    • -provide and maintain form in the body
    • -provide a matrix that connects and binds cells and tissues together
    • -serve as a reservoir for hormones controlling cell growth and differentiation
    • -Medium through which nutrients and metabolic waste are exchanged between cells and their blood supply
  2. What are the 3 components of CT?
    • -cells
    • -gibers
    • -ground substance
  3. What are the two components of the extracellular matrix (ECM)?
    • -Ground substance
    • -Fibers
  4. What are the 3 types of CT cells?
    • -Mesenchymal
    • -Hematopoietic
    • -Macrophage-like
  5. Name some types of Mesenchymal cells...
    • -fibroblasts
    • -chondrocytes
    • -osteoblasts
    • -adipocytes
    • -endothelial cells
    • -smooth muscle cells
  6. Name some types of Hematopoietic cells...
    • -mast cells
    • -basophils
    • -eosinophils
    • -neutrophils
    • -macrophages
    • -lymphocytes (T&B)
    • -RBC
  7. Name some types of Macrophage-like cells...
    • -monocytes (blood)
    • -macrophage (tissue)
    • -multinuclear giant cell (CT)
    • -Kupffer cell (liver)
    • -microglia (CNS)
    • -osteoclasts (bone)
    • -Langerhans cell (skin)
    • -dentritic cell (lymph nodes)
  8. What are the 3 CT fiber types?
    • Collagen
    • Reticular
    • Elastic
  9. What are examples of some important CT in the body?
    • Tendons
    • Ligaments
    • Aponeuroses
    • Dermis
    • Organ capsules
    • Stroma of organs
    • Covering muscles and nerves and membranes (meninges) surrounding the CNS
  10. What is the function of collagen?
    Provides resistance to tensile forces (something being pulled apart)
  11. What is tropocollagen?
    a single molecule of collagen fiber

    • a collagen molecule that leaves cell membrane (starts as procollagen)
    • have 3 strands of AA – polypeptide chain similar to what will see in basal lamina
  12. What are the layers of a collagenous fiber, starting with the inner most layer?
    • Procollagen
    • Tropocollagen
    • Fibril (a number of collagen molecules)
    • Fiber (series of fibrils)
  13. Describe Type I collagen and give some examples.
    • Strongest, largest of collagen fibers
    • The most abundant collagen

    EX: dense CT, muscles, ligaments, tendons
  14. Describe Type II collagen and give some examples.
    Resist compressive/shearing forces

    EX: Found in articular cartilage and fibrocartilage (bones)
  15. Describe Type III collagen and give some examples.
    synonymous with reticular fibers, provides framework

    EX: found in skin, artery wall, scar tissue
  16. Describe Type IV collagen and give some examples.
    major filament providing connection points for cells to bind

    EX: desmosomes of basement membranes (basal lamina)
  17. Explain what a reticular fiber is.
    • Composed of type III collagen fibers
    • Small diameter and "loosely" arranged -> creates a flexible network for organs that incur volume changes (arteries, spleen, liver, uterus)
    • Abundant in smooth muscle, endoneurium (neurons), and the framework for hemotopoietic organs (spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow)
    • Also located in the papillary layer of the dermis
  18. Describe the 3 fiber types of Elastic tissue.
    • Oxytalan: small fibers that do not actually contain elastic protein but are resistant to tensile forces
    • Elaunin: Mixture of elastin protein and oxytalan fibers
    • Elastin: Polymers of elastin aggregate in the center of elastic fibers and are surrounded by network of oxytalan and elaunin fibers
  19. What is ground substance?
    a viscus, hydrophilic substance with many macromolecules (glycosaminoglycans [GAGs], proteoglycans [PGs], glycoproteins)

    • occurs "between" cells
    • binds cell surface receptors to fiber components of ECM
    • Anchor cells within ECM; provides tissue strength and rigidity
  20. What are some CT Proper types?
    • Loose CT
    • Dense CT (regular and irregular)
  21. What are some specialized CT?
    • Adipose
    • Elastic
    • Hematopoietic (blood)
    • Mucus tissue (umbilical cord)
  22. What are 2 supporting CT types?
    Cartilage and bone
  23. Describe loose CT and give some examples of where you may find some.
    • Supports structures that are normally under low pressure and low friction forces
    • Flexible tissue, well vascularized, not very resistant to tensile forces
    • Contains mainly fibroblasts and collagen, with lesser amounts of elastic and reticular fibers
    • Very common and found in many tissues

    EX: epithelium, endomysium, endoneurium, dermis, lining of peritoneal and pleural cavities, surrounding glands, blood vessels, and mucous membranes
  24. Describe dense CT.
    • Main fxn: to offer resistance to tensile force and protection of tissues
    • Have fewer cells and predominance of collagen fibers compared to loose CT
    • Minimally flexible
    • High resistant to stress (esp. tension)
    • 2 different types: irregular and regular
  25. Describe dense regular CT and give are some examples.
    • Collagen bundles arranged into definitive, linear pattern
    • Linear orientation of fibers is designed to withstand prolonged stressed exerted n the direction of fiber alignment

    EX: Tendons and Ligaments
  26. Describe dense irregular CT and give an example.
    • Collagen fibers arranged in bundles without and definite orientation
    • Provides resistance to stress in all directions

    EX: Dermis (reticular layer)
  27. Describe elastic tissue
    • Composed of thick, parallel elastic fiber bundles, and fibroblasts
    • Thin collagen gibers are scattered among the elastic fiber bundles
    • Abundant elastic content confers color
    • FXN: designed to provide elasticity to tissues, and recoil from extended position to flexed position

    EX: mainly in ligaments of vertebral column (ligamentum flavum)

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