Ecology Vocab

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Anonymous
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37405
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Ecology Vocab
Updated:
2010-09-26 12:35:47
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ecology vocab
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Chapter 3, sections 1,2 and 3
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  1. the scientific study of interactions a among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings.
    ecology
  2. contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air, or atmosphere
    biosphere
  3. a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
    species
  4. groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
    populations
  5. assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area
    communities
  6. a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical environment
    ecosystem
  7. a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities
    biome
  8. organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
    autotroph or producer
  9. process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
    photosynthesis
  10. process by which some organisms such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
    chemosynthesis
  11. organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy
    heterotroph or consumer
  12. organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
    herbivore
  13. organism that obtains energy by eating animals
    carnivore
  14. organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
    omnivore
  15. organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
    detritivore
  16. organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
    decomposer
  17. series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
    food chain
  18. network of complex interactions formed by feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
    food web
  19. step in a food chain or food web
    trophic level
  20. diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
    ecological pyramid
  21. total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
    biomass
  22. process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed form one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
    biogeochemical cycle
  23. process by which water changes form a liquid to an atmospheric gas
    evaporation
  24. loss of water from a plant through its leaves
    transpiration
  25. chemical substance that an organism requires to live
    nutrient
  26. process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
    nitrogen fixation
  27. conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas
    denitrification
  28. rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
    primary productivity
  29. single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
    limiting nutrient
  30. an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that result from a large input of limiting nutrients
    algal bloom

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