Bio

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Anonymous
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3743
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Bio
Updated:
2010-01-04 22:11:11
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Biology
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Chp. 1-2
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  1. Biology
    The study of life, offers an organized and scientific framework for posing and answering such questions about the natural world
  2. Organization
    The high degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world
  3. Cell
    The smallest unit that can preform all life's processes
  4. Unicellular
    Some organisms, such as bacteria, are made up of one cell
  5. Multicellular
    Other organisms, such as humansor trees, are made up of multiple cells
  6. Organs
    Structures that carry out specialized jos within an organ system
  7. Tissues
    Groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function
  8. Organelles
    Tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive
  9. Biological Molecules
    The chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions
  10. Homeostasis
    The maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing
  11. Metabolism
    The sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment
  12. Division
    The formation of wo new cells from an existing cell
  13. Development
    The process by which as organism becomes a mature adult
  14. Reproduction
    The making of new organsims like themselves
  15. Gene
    A short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single traait of an organism
  16. Domain
    Major subdivisions of all organisms
  17. Kingdoms
    Grouping of organisms that divided all life into six major categories
  18. Ecology
    The branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment
  19. Ecosystems
    Communities of living species and their physical environments
  20. Evolution
    The process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations, such that genetically distinct populations and new species can develop
  21. Natural Selection
    Organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce sucessfully than organisms that lack these traits
  22. Adaptations
    Traits that improve an individual's ability to survive and reproduce
  23. Control Group
    Provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group
  24. Experimental Group
    The control group except for one factor, the independent variable
  25. Independent Variable
    The factor that is deliberately manipulated, also called the manipulated variable
  26. Dependent Variable
    The factor that changes as a result of manipulation of one or more other factores; also called a responding variable
  27. Theory
    When a set of related hypothesis is confirmed to be true many times
  28. Peer Review
    Anonymous critique on a research paper
  29. Matter
    ANything that occupies space and has mass
  30. Mass
    The quantity of matter an object has
  31. Elements
    Substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
  32. Atom
    The simplest particle of an element that retains all of the propeties of that element
  33. Nucleus
    Makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom and consists of two kinds of subatomic particles, a protons and a nuetron
  34. Atomic Number
    The number of protons in an atom
  35. Mass Number
    An atom is equal to the total number of protons and nuetrons of the atom
  36. Orbital
    A three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
  37. Isotopes
    Atoms of the same element that have a different number of nuetrons
  38. Compounds
    Made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions
  39. Chemical Bonds
    The attractive forces that hold atoms together
  40. Covalent Bonds
    Two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
  41. Molecule
    The simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
  42. Ion
    An atom or molecule with an electrical charge
  43. Ionic Bond
    Positive and negative electrical charges attract each other
  44. Energy
    The ability to do work
  45. Chemical Reaction
    One or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
  46. Reactants
    A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
  47. Products
    The end result of a chemical equation
  48. Metabolism
    The term used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
  49. Activation Energy
    The amount of energy needed to start the reaction
  50. Catalysts
    A chemical substance that reduces the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reason to take place
  51. Enzyme
    A protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being eprmanently changed or destroyed
  52. Redox Reactions
    A reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms are known as oxidation reduction reactions
  53. Oxidation Reaction
    A reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge
  54. Reduction Reaction
    A reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming more negative in charge
  55. Polar
    Uneven distribution of charge
  56. Hydrogen Bond
    The force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
  57. Cohesion
    An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
  58. Adhesion
    The attractive force between two particles of different substances
  59. Capillarity
    The attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
  60. Solution
    A mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributes in another substance
  61. Solute
    A substance dissolved in the solvent
  62. Solvent
    The substance in which the solute is dissolved
  63. Concentration
    A solution is amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
  64. Saturated Solution
    One in which no more solute can dissolve
  65. Aqeous Solutions
    Solutions in which water is the solvent
  66. Hydroxide Ion
    OH -
  67. Hydronium Ion
    H3O+
  68. Acid
    The number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater that the number of hydroxide ions
  69. Base
    A solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions
  70. pH Scale
    Ranges from 0-14 and tells how basic or acid something is
  71. Buffers
    Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution

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