Card Set Information
Who discovered xrays?
How long ago?
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
List 6 types or examples of electromagnetic radiation.
Cosmic, gamma, xrays, Ultraviiolet, Infrared, visible light, microwaves
How is electromagnetic energy measured?
Wavelengthsare measured from ___ to ___, or ___to ___.
Crest to crest
Trough to trough
Which wavelengths are the most penetrating?
Which wavelengths are the least penetrating?
name the three basic components of an atom.
Electrons, neutrons, protrons
The process whereby radiation changes the atomic structure of a cell is called what?
List the 4 types of radiation
Primary,secondary, scatter, leakage
List the 8 body tissues in the order of the most sensitive to the least
Genetic, blood, skin, connectivve tissues, bone, nerve-brain, muscles,glands
Xrays should be avoid with pregnant women, especially during what period?
What are thetwo type of radiation that people are exposed to daily?
Natural and Artificial
what are the sources of natural radiation?
Sun, atmosphere and Earth (radon)
Define "Latent Period"
The time between exposure and symptoms
List the three parts of the xray machine.
Control Panel, Extension arm and Tubehead
List 3 adjustments found on the control panel
mA, kV and on/off
Milliamperage (mA) controls the ______ or amount of electrons produced.
What is mA most commonly set at?
Kilovoltage (kV) controls the ___ or penetrating power of the beam.
What is the purpose of the extension arm?
Position the tubehead towards the pt.
What part of the xray machine generates the xrays?
The negative side of the tubehead, where the electrons are generated is called the ___.
When the machine is turned on, what heats up, and produces the electrons?
Filament or coil
What directs the electrons to the positive side of the tubehead?
What is the positive (+) side of the tubehead called?
When the button is pushed, the electrons shoot to the ___
The area where they (electron) hit is called the ___.
the xrays are the directed down, through the aperture, or window, and encounter the aluminum ___.
What is the purpose of the aluminum filter?
to eliminate soft, weak, xrays
The primary xray beam continues through the cone, and next encounters what?
Collimator or lead diaphragm
What is the purpose of the collimator ( lead diaphragm) ?
Reshapes the beam, and limts its size
the xrays the pass through the open cone, and out the ____.
The outside of the tubehead is surrounded by what type of casing?
the next casing, inside of the metal one is the ---.
Glass casing or Glass envelope
What is found in between these two casings and why?
Oil bath for cooling
What is the actual xray film composed of ?
Flexible, thin, polyester plastic
What is the emulsion composed of?
silver halide crystals, in a gelatin base
What are halides compounds of?
Chlorine, bromine, and iodine
What is a " Latent Image" ?
An image stored on an exposed film, that doesn't show until it is processed or developed
What two things, other than the film, are found inside the packet?
Black paper, and lead foil
What does the lead foil do?
Absorbs unused xrays
What are the 5 film sizes, and what are they most commonly used for?
0-pedo (children) 1-narrow anterior 2-adult 3-long bite-wings 4-occlusal
What is the # 1 cause of cross contamination in a dental office?
List 3 types of intraoral radiographs.
Periapical (PA), bitewings (BW), Occlusal
What do periapical xrays show?
Entire tooth and surrounding area.
What portion of the teeth do bitewings show,
and What are they primarly used for?
Coronal portion of max and mand
Detect interproximal decay
Why are occlusal films taken?
To show large areas of either the max or mand arch
List 4 processes occlusal films may show.
Cysts, stones, fractures, supernumerary.
What does FMX stand for?
full mouth xray
Typically how many films are involved?
What are the two most common extraoral radiographs taken?
Panoramic and cephalometric (ce-fa-lo-metric)
What are 4 uses of extraoral film,
What do they show?
TMJ, fractures, Impactions
What is the film holder for extraoral film called?
Short scale contrast is mostly ___ and ___.
Black and White
Long Scale contrast contains multile shapes of ___.
Precautions for Operator
Never hold film in patients mouth-if infant or small child, have caretaker hold on lap.
Operation of the xray head
Activator button turned on (mA)
Film packet composition
A plastic or polyester film material with an emulsion of gelatin and silver halide/bromide crystals on both sides of the film.
Elon is one of the reducers in this solution that causes the crystals to separate.
Density and Contrast of a film.
Density is the overall darkness of a film
Xrays may be processed in a dark room with a safe light or in a normal room with the use of a " day-light" loader.