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What is ecology?
The study of the interrelationships of organisms and their environment
Describe Lonesome George
Species of Galapogos were spread among the islands, therefore there was a 'lonesome George" (only male). 70-80 years old
What is a biome?
large scale communities generally defined by plant assemblages
What is a community?
an assemblage of populations of different animals, plants, microbes, etc.
Explain Range of optima, zones of physiological stress and intolerance
Two Physical Factors Permit Classification of the Major Communities are?
Water and Temp.
- Temperature= available light
- Precipitation= available water
Temp and Moisture are primarily determined by
- 1. Solar Radiation
- 2. Air and Wind Circulation
- 3. Land Masses
- 4. Ocean Currents
Reasons Differences in Incoming Solar Radiation:
- a. Angle of Incidence Changes and Dilutes Light
- b. More Atmosphere (i.e. Particles) to Travel Through
- c. Tilt and Rotation of the Earth = Seasonality
Formation of Convection Cells AKA Hadley Cells
- West coast always cold
- North equator : clockwise
- South equator: counter-clockwise
- Water has a high specific heat than air and changes temp more slowly than air
- Seattle vs North Dakota
Passive cooling due to expansion of warm air without loss of total heat content
Passive heating due to compression of cool air
Hopkins Bioclimatic Law
- cooling is similar between altitude & latitude
- Altitude: cools 3oF/1000 ft
- Latitude: cools 3oF/100 miles
4 Major physical factors/determinates of aquatic environment
- 1. Light
- 2. Temp -> holds heat well, releases slowly
- 3. Oxygen
- 4. Pressure
Flowing aquatic environment
Lentic Environment terminology
Environmental influences produced other than by living organisms -> temp, pH, humidity, salinity, sunlight
- Environmental influences caused by living
- organisms->Competition, predation, disease
- Determined by Abiotic factors only
- idealized or theorized
- Determined by Abiotic and Biotic factors
Is what the animal does, its 'profession'
- Evolution: Genetic change over time
- Adaptation: Genetic change that improves function
- Natural Selection: Differential reproduction of individuals that differ by >= 1 genetic trait
Natural Selection Requirements
- Variation: Traits have to be variable
- Heritable: Traits have to have a genetic basis
- Differential Reproduction: heritable traits must be passed on in different proportions
Maximizing the number of genes that are passed on to the next generation
Types of natural selection
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