Bio 13

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Anonymous
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3752
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Bio 13
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2010-01-04 23:18:51
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The beginning Chapter of Biology 13 Manual
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  1. Adaptibility(Individual)
    The ability of an organizm to change in some way to adjust to different environmental condition.
  2. Movement
    It can be defined as a self-directed change in place or position. All living things exhibit some type of movement.
  3. Responsiveness
    The ability to respond to a stimulus.
  4. CELLULARITY
    All organisms are made of small subnits(cells).
  5. DNA
    All organism contain strands of nucletides known as DNA.
  6. Metabolism
    The complex and physical processes which permit us to acquire and eliminate molecules, and to transform and utilize energy are collectively called metabolism.
  7. Digestion
    The chemical breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules that cn be easily absorbed.
  8. Absorption
    Taking up small molecules the gut into the body's blood stream
  9. Assimilation
    The biochemical assembly of large complex molecules from smaller simpler ones(generally requiring energy).
  10. Cellular respiration
    also known as 'oxidative metabolism', is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy. It is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in organisms' cells to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve the oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another.
  11. Circulation
    The movement of fluidsthrough the body of a multicellular organism to carry nutrients and wastes, hormones and other molecules to and from the cells.
  12. Respiration
    exists at two levels:1) the exchange of gases(mainly oxygen and carbondioxide)between the body and the environment(breathing); 2) the utilization of oxygen within the body's cells to produce energy(cellular respiration) to carry out other energy requiring aspects of metabolism.
  13. Exceretion
    The elimination of waste molecules from a cell or body.
  14. Integration
    the ability of the various parts of a complex organism to work together
  15. Growth
    Growing means to become larger by taking in outside material(molecules and energy) and converting it in to one's own material and then incorporaating that material into one's structure.
  16. Reproduction
    Reproduction refers to the production of offspring. Living things may reproduce by two major methods --- Sexual and asexual reproduction. In sexual reproduction the fusion of special sex cells contributed by two induviduals. In asexual reproduction only one induvidual involved.
  17. Heredity
    Heredity refers to the transmission of physical characteristics from parent to ofspring.
  18. Mutation
    Changes in genes that appear in living things and can be inherited.
  19. ADAPTABILITY (SPECIES) AND EVOLUTION
    Ince some gene changes (mutations) can happen in sex cells(sexual reproduction) these mutations are heritable and pass on the next generation. The carpenter's son will not be born with larger hand and arm muscles (and the calluses and tanned skin). If, However, there is mutatin in one of the carpenter's sperm cells to gene that controls hemoglobin formation in red blood cells, and that sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell, the embryo may develop red blood cells with a slightly different hemoglobin. If the changed hemoglobin doesn't workas well as normall hemoglobin, the child will be at a disadvantage and may not reproduce, or may produce fewer offspring than people with "normal"hemoglobin. Then population is becoming resistant to the disease- in time it is adapting as a group-it is evolving. Populations evolve, not individuals.

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