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What are the factors that create health inequities?
discrimination, gender, poor access to health care, unemployment, social isolation, dislocation of land, occupation, access to and level of education, geographic location, racism, government economic and social policies, socioeconomic status
What two ways can health inequities and/or injustices be measured?
- Quantitative - epidemiology data, comparisons
- Qualitative - Social determinants of health, access, legislation
What are the 4 levels of the ecological framework for health?
What are the social justice principles in health?
What are the levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
- Self Actualisation
What does self actualisation mean?
- It is about the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person.
- Self-actualized people tend to have motivators such as: * Truth * Justice * Wisdom * Meaning
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are esteem needs?
- Feeling important
- can be acheived by recognition, attention, acomplishment and self respect.
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are Social needs?
- Giving and receiving love
- Forming relationships
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are safety needs?
Safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm.
In Maslow's Hierarchy what are physiological needs?
Those required to sustain life, eg food, water, air
What does PABCAR stand for?
- Amenability to change
When is PABCAR used?
- Public health decision-making model.
- Used to decide which intervention to put into place and whether to advocate or not.
What does this statement mean?
"For health promotion to be effective it requires the integration of health promotion activities across sectors"
- Multi facted approach
- Health sector alone isn't enough
- need education, corporate support, government to work together
What is needs assessment?
A systematic method for reviewing the health issues facing apopulation, leading to agreed priorities and resource allocation that will improve health and reduce inequalities.
How is a needs assessment done?
- Planning - getting started
- Identify priorities
- Assess priotities for action
- Planning for change
Which step of the Health Needs Assessment includes gathering epidemiology data?
Step 2 - Identifying priority
What strategies are used to reduce inequities of specific groups?
What actions address inequity?
- Ottawa Charter Action Areas
- Community Development (empowerment)
- Increasing Health care
What is health care reform?
- Reform - make changes for improvement
- Set the policy direction to better connect hospitals, primary and community care to meet patient needs, improve continuity of care and reduce demand on hospitals.
Why do we need Health Care Reform?
- Increasing burden of diease - chronic disease
- Overcrowded hospitals or long waiting lists
- Inequity - not all people can access the same care
What the priorities for Health Care Reform in Australia?
- Improving access and reducing inequity
- Better management of chronic conditions
- Increasing the focus on prevention
- Improving quality, safety, performance and accountability
What are the main elements of Australian Health Care reform?
- Accessible, clinically and culturally appropriate
- Patient-centred and supportive of health literacy
- More focussed on preventive care
- Well-integrated, coordinated, and providing continuity of care
- Safe, high quality care which is continually improving through relevant research
- Better management of health information
- Flexibility to best respond to local community needs
- Working environments and conditions which attract, support and retain workforce
- High quality education and training
- Fiscally sustainable, efficient and cost-effective.
Define majority norms.
Unwritten rules of standards that more than 50% of the population or community obey.
What are proscriptive norms?
Norms that "prohibit" you from doing something.
What are prescriptive norms?
Norms that "prescribe" behaviour, so they make you do something.
What are popular norms?
Norms made by the popular people or "cool" people. Align with Popular culture.
What are norms of specific groups?
Social or cultural groups that are unique to a particular group of people within a population.
What are physical, structural and social factors thta influence health behaviour?
- Physical - climate, land, location
- Structural - buildings, transport, products, policies
- Social - relationships, group dynamics, communication
What are examples of values held by individuals towards health, illness and treatment?
- For example, Individuals may value:
- Ease of Use, Efficiency, Accountability, Innovation, Respect, Trust, Wisdom, Competition, Communication, Freedom, Cleanliness or Knowledge.
What are positive health behaviours?
- Stress Management
To insist on having one's opinions and rights recognized
Define Stress management.
- A set of techniques used to help an individual cope more effectively
- with difficult situations in order to feel better emotionally, improve
- behavioral skills, and often to enhance feelings of control.
Is the positive capacity of people to cope with stress and catastrophe. Being able to bouncec back from adversity.
What is the impact of culture on health decision-making?
- Cultural norms may influence you to act a certain way to conform
- Religious rules promote or restrict behaviours
What are the skills for health literacy?
- Being able to locate, interpret and evaluate health information
- analysing risks and benefits
The act of assisting or making easier the progress or improvement of something.
- Active support of an idea or cause
- The act of pleading or arguing for something
Explain the use of facilitation and advocacy in addressing disadvantage and inequity in communities.
- Facilitation - assisting the people at disadvantage
- Advocacy - raise public awareness, change laws, gain support
What are the global and regional challenges facing the health sector in addressing social determinants of health?
- disease outbreaks
- availability of clean drinking water
- other environmental issues.
What is the role of WHO?
- 1. Creating norms, standards or acceptable behaviour
- 2. Leadership over NGO’s and the health sector.
- 3. Research, disease eradication and emergencies
What is the role of AusAID?
Contributes to stability in ourregion by helping countries provide essential services to their people and through specific measures
How does WHO establish priorities?
- Epidemiological data - comparisons and burden of disease
- Social determinants of health - access, legislation, wealth
- Looks for injustices and inequity.
What are the Millenum Development goals?
- 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- 2. Achieve universal primary education
- 3. Promote gender equality and empowerwomen
- 4. Reduce child mortality
- 5. Improve maternal health
- 6. Combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and otherdiseases
- 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
- 8. Develop a global partnership fordevelopment
What are the NHPA's?
- Mental health
- Cardio vascular Disease
- Musculoskeletal disease
What is the role and impact of policy in health.
- Healthy public policy is an ottawa charter action area
- Policy will create a supportive environment
- can influence beleifs - if it is a policy it must be important
How do governments and the health sector make decisions in complex situations?
- Assessment – impact & cause
- Economic valuation – cost, Quantitative and qualitative measures.
- Interactive process – Knowledge sharing.
- Communication – Present the policy recommendations, costs, barriers or potential problems
A negotiation to resolve differences that is conducted by some impartial party
A discussion intended to produce an agreement
a middle way between two extremes
The hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties
- The process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid
- and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.
Define managing conflict.
Using avoidance, accommodation, compromise, competition or collaboration to solve problems
What is a developing country?
A country whose per capita income is low by world standards.
What is a developed country?
A country whose per capita income is high by world standards.
What is the difference between developing and developed countries in terms of health?
- Developed - have access to social determinants. Chronic disease from having too much eg obesity.
- Developing - little access to social determinants. Chronic disease from having too little eg malnutrition