Course 009 Vol 3 Communication Skills 2
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How are concepts of communication preparation universal?
The basic philosophy and guidance for effective writing and speaking are the same. Both involve getting started with the communication, subject research, support selection, and organizing.
What is effective communication?
Any communication that results in the receiver interpreting your message as you intended.
For what three reasons do we generally try to communicate with each other?
We communicate to direct, influence or inform our audience
Explain the two audience concept as it applies to communication?
Every communication has a sending and receiving audience. The sending audience is the group we represent, while the receiving audience is the group with whom we are communicating.
Name four resources for researching your subject
Four available resources are the library, the internet, reference books, and individuals.
List five categories of reference tools.
Almanacs, Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Thesauruses, E-resources.
Name the five types of support and give a brief description of each.
- (1) Definitions explain or clarify unfamiliar items;
- (2) examples provide an illustration of what we are trying to communicate;
- (3) comparisons provide a reference to a similar and usually better known item; (4) testimony express the item through the words and thoughts of others; and
- (5) statistics show relationships and/or summarize collections of facts or data.
In what manner did Socrates describe speech? How did this correlate to a speech structure?
Socrates analogized the parts of a speech to a body of an animal having a head (Introduction), body, and tail (Conclusion).
Name five different patters used when organizing a presentation.
Types of patterns include: topical; time or chronological; reason; problem-solution; spatial or geographical; and cause-and-effect
Mind mapping is a brainstorming activity in which you allow your unorganized thoughts to flow onto paper, connecting like items/thoughts as you progress.
What outlining formats are mentioned in this lesson?
This lesson covers four outline types: scratch; formal; informal; and talking paper.
What do the terms "faulty analogy, “asserted conclusion”, “loaded question", and “non sequitur" have in common?
They are examples of flaws, or fallacies in logic.
How are transitional devices valuable tools when arranging the elements of your message?
Transitional devices, when woven skillfully into your message, can assist your audience in following your train of thought.
What are the accepted standards for the format of the printed presentation?
- Ensure you:
- (1) Double space text.
- (2) Ensure all main points are adequately supported; paper lengths will vary depending on topic and/or requirements.
- (3) If computer-generated, use a 12 point, Times New Roman font; maintain one-inch margins all around; align text to left margin; do not center or justify text.
- (4) If handwritten, print or write legibly; use standard 8.5" by 11" college-ruled notebook paper; remove any frayed, spiral, or perforated edges; ensure capital letters are distinguishable from lower case letters.
What are the three areas to focus on when writing a paper?
Technical accuracy and coverage, arrangement and flow, and readability and mechanics.
What are the three areas to focus on when preparing a speech?
Technical accuracy and coverage, arrangement and flow, and presentation and delivery.
Why is "extemporaneous" approach to speaking appealing?
It is the least hostile and most intimate form of communicating with your audience. You are able to speak "off the cuff", but may also use speaking aids, such as index cards, outlines, etc.
What three components are evaluated in the introduction of a written or spoken presentation?
Purpose, motivation, and overview.
What section is used to evaluate punctuation, grammar, and spelling?
Readability and mechanics.
In which part of a speech or written presentation would you evaluate the use and integration of transitions?
What are three responsibilities of commanders and supervisors-their staffs and subordinates-when it comes to organizational communication?
Keep communication channels open, maintain an environment conducive to communication; and communicate effectively.
In what way can organization personnel verify whether they are engaging critically and constructively in the exchange of ideas?
By completing a short, self-diagnostic exercise that reveals personal but applicable barriers to communicating.
Name and define barriers that can hinder effective communications?
They are organizational, language, managerial, and psychological. Organizational barriers are a result of personnel not understanding their responsibilities and the lines of authority within a given organizational structure. Language barriers result from our inability to use the proper words to communicate with our receiver. Managerial barriers stem from managers not listening and not taking an understanding attitude toward information and suggestions that reach them. Psychological barriers result from psychological needs not being met. These needs are a feeling of security, opportunity for advancement, a desire to be treated fairly, and a realization that one's work is both useful and important.
What are the steps in overcoming communication barriers?
There are two steps. The first is to establish an organizational policy that defines lines of responsibility and authority, establishes communications channels, provides a climate for effective communication, and keeps key people informed. The next step is to increase skills in written and oral expression.
How do communications flow within an organization?
Communications flow in three directions-upward, downward, and lateral.
Often, what is the result of communications having to pass through many organizational levels?
It often causes a delay in communications and creates chances for distortion of the original message.
The misuse of abstractions and a lack of common core experience are main contributors to which communication barrier?
They are the main contributors to language barriers.
What is the difference between a concrete and an abstract noun?
A concrete noun refers to object that humans can directly experience. They usually convey the same meaning to everybody. An abstract noun is one that tends to be vague and open to interpretation. As such, its use often leads to confusion.
What is a clique? Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of a clique within an organization.
The formation of a clique is the direct result of our social instinct to band together in groups. A clique can bind people together by enhancing unit morale. However, a clique can also take on a life of its own and become independent of organization objectives.
What are the four steps in the process of writing?
- (1) Prewriting
- (2) Drafting
- (3) Editing
- (4) Revising
What five steps are involved in the prewriting phase?
- (1) Selecting your purpose and objective,
- (2) analyzing your audience,
- (3) researching your subject,
- (4) selecting a pattern, and
- (5) outlining
When writing your draft, what areas should you focus on?
During the editing phase, what specifically are you looking for?
Look for basic grammatical errors and correct format. Check for complete paragraphs and sentences, then compare it to your outline to ensure you have included all of the main points and sub points you intended to cover.
Describe the revising phase
Revising is a finishing step to improve the communication based on the editing phase and the feedback from the reviewers. You revise or rewrite your draft to make it into a more formal presentation.
What is sentence unity?
All the parts of the sentence matching in number, verb, possession, etc.
Briefly define the four types of sentences you should use throughout your written communication
- 1) Simple sentence-a sentence that expresses one complete thought.
- (2) Compound sentence-A union of two or more simple sentences.
- (3) Complex sentence-a simple sentence with a dependent clause attached to it.
- (4) Compound-complex sentence-a combination of a compound and a complex sentence
Name the standard sentence mechanics you should be aware of when writing
Punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviation.
Briefly describe each of the common obstacles to sentence coherence.
- (1) Faulty order of sentence parts and misplaced modifiers-sentence parts are not in the correct order.
- (2) Faulty parallelism-similar ideas or parts are not expressed in a parallel way.
- (3) Faulty relationship of ideas-reader cannot tell the relationship of sentence parts due to dangling modifiers or omissions.
What are the three basic components of a paragraph?
Topic sentence, support sentence, and closing sentence.
What is the basic concept of paragraph coherence?
All of the paragraph parts should be arranged so that their relationship is clear to the reader.
What are some examples of transitional devices you can use to show a contrasting relationship?
But, still, however, nevertheless, and yet.
Considering the point of view for your communication, describe how writing in the second person is done?
The second person is the person spoken to; using the second person allows the writer to maintain some personal relationship with the reader.
Describe the three common forms of tense you will use in your communication.
- (1) Past-express actions or makes a statement about something that happened in the past.
- (2) Present-expresses action or makes a statement about something happening in the present time.
- (3) Future-expresses action or make a statement about something happening at a future time.
What does the voice of your writing indicate?
Voice shows if the subject acts or is acted upon.
How do you use number to maintain paragraph coherence?
If the controlling idea is singular, you keep all the references to it singular.
What is the basic idea behind writing a draft?
The primary objective is to get your ideas down on paper in some form so you can edit and revise.
Each time your work is edited, what should the editor be reading for?
Content, arrangement and flow, and readability and mechanics.
What is the definition of a bullet statement?
A concise, written statement of a single idea or a single accomplishment and the impact.
What form of communication does the construction of a bullet statement resemble? Why the comparison of the two forms?
The wording of a telegram. Since each word of a telegram costs the same, word economizing is integral to save money while ensuring message meaning; the same concept is applicable to developing bullet statements.
Name the types of bullet statements.
Single idea and single accomplishment.
Explain the following formula: SAB=SAC+2.
A single accomplishment bullet consists of the following attributes: specific, accurate, concise, single accomplishment/achievement, and impact.
What are the attributes of an effective bullet statement?
It should be specific, accurate, and concise.
What are the three most common uses for bullet statements in the Air Force?
EPR, award/decoration nomination, talking paper.
How many types of accomplishment bullet statements are there? Name them.
There are three-action verb bullet; modified verb bullet; and specific achievement bullet.
What is an SIB?
Single Idea Bullet
Where would you most likely use an SIB?
EPR, award/decoration nomination, talking paper.
Where would you most likely use an SAB?
EPRs, Award/Decoration Package.
What are the phases of the speaking process?
Prewriting, drafting, editing, and presentation phase.
When starting a presentation, what are some attention-getting devices you might consider?
Rhetorical questions; direct questions; quotations; illustrations; a startling statement; unusual or dramatic devices; and references to the importance of the theme.
What is the definition of a rhetorical question?
A rhetorical question is one requiring no answer; its answer is usually obvious.
What is the purpose of the overview step in the process of speaking?
The overview step provides the audience with a road map of the information that is to follow.
What should be accomplished during the summary?
The summary should restate the main points, the relationship between points, and the specific objective of the presentation.
What devices are used to ensure the continuity of thought?
Transitions and interim summaries are used to ensure the continuity of thought.
How many types of physical behaviors are there? Name them.
There are three types of physical behavior: eye contact, body movement and gestures.
According to Dr. Kline, what properties of voice?
Quality, intelligibility and variety
Upon what factors does the intelligibility of a presentation depend?
Articulation, pronunciation, vocal pauses, overuse of stock expressions, and substandard grammar
What fundamentals of speech add variety to a presentation?
Rate, volume, force pitch, and emphasis.
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