med terms ch. 6 musculoskeletal system (bones ... not the tv show)

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med terms ch. 6 musculoskeletal system (bones ... not the tv show)
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2010-09-27 01:36:10
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IBHS med terms ch.6
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  1. hematopoiesis
    • hemat/o = blood
    • -poiesis = production
  2. musculoskeletal system
    • muscul/o = muscle
    • close association of the body's skeleton and muscles
    • muscles also closely related to the nervous system
  3. function of bones
    • support and movement
    • formation of blood cells, storage of fat in the bone marrow, storage and release of minerals (esp calcium)
  4. 3 major types of muscles of the muscular system
    • composed of cells or fibers that contract and bring about movement of an organ or part of the body
    • 1) cardiac (heart) - striated (alternate light and dark bands), involuntary
    • 2) smooth (visceral or involuntary) - non-striated, involuntary
    • 3) skeletal (under conscious or voluntary control) - striated, voluntary
  5. ortho ped ics
    • ortho/o = straight
    • ped/o = child
    • -ic = pertaining to
  6. adult human skeleton consists of how many named bones
    usually 206
  7. 4 major division of the skeleton
    skull, spinal column, breastbone, ribs
  8. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    clavicul/o
    • clavicle
    • common name: collarbone
  9. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    crani/o
    • cranium
    • common name: skull
  10. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    cost/o
    • costa
    • common name: rib
  11. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    scapul/o
    • scapula
    • common name: shoulder blade
  12. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    stern/o
    • sternum
    • common name: breastbone
  13. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    rachi/o, spin/o
    • spine
    • common name: backbone
  14. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    spondyl/o, vertebr/o
    • vertebrae (general)
    • common name: spinal bones (6 listed with this common name)
  15. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    cervic/o
    • cervical (vertebrae), neck [C1-C7]
    • common name: spinal bones (6 listed with this common name)
  16. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    thorac/o
    • thoracic (vertebrae) [T1-T12]
    • common name: spinal bones (6 listed with this common name)
  17. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    lumb/o
    • lumbar (vertebrae) [L1-L5]
    • common name: spinal bones (6 listed with this common name)
  18. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    sacr/o
    • sacrum (5 sacral vertebrae)
    • common name: spinal bones (6 listed with this common name)
  19. context: major bones of the body: Bones that form the vertical axis of the body
    coccyg/o
    • coccyx (4 coccygeal vertebrae) - tailbone, fused coccygeal bones
    • common name: spinal bones (6 listed with this common name)
  20. context: major bones of the body: bones of the upper extremities
    humer/o
    • humerus
    • common name: upper arm bone
  21. context: major bones of the body: bones of the upper extremities
    radi/o
    • radius
    • common name: bones of the forearm (2 with this name)
  22. context: major bones of the body: bones of the upper extremities
    uln/o
    • ulna
    • common name: bones of the forearm (2 with this name)
  23. context: major bones of the body: bones of the upper extremities
    carp/o
    • carpals (8 small bones)
    • common name: wrist bones
  24. context: major bones of the body: bones of the upper extremities
    metacarp/o
    • metacarpals (5 bones)
    • common name: bones of the hand
  25. context: major bones of the body: bones of the upper extremities
    phalang/o
    • phalanges (3 on each finger except thumb which has 2)
    • common name: bones of the fingers
  26. context: major bones of the body: bones of the pelvis
    pelv/i
    pelvis
  27. context: major bones of the body: bones of the pelvis
    ili/o
    • ilium
    • common name: pelvic bones (3 with this name)
  28. context: major bones of the body: bones of the pelvis
    ischi/o
    • ischium
    • common name: pelvic bones (3 with this name)
  29. context: major bones of the body: bones of the pelvis
    pub/o
    • pubis
    • common name: pelvic bones (3 with this name)
  30. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    femor/o
    • femur
    • common name: thigh bone
  31. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    patell/o
    • patella
    • common name: kneecap
  32. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    fibul/o
    • fibula
    • common name: bones of the lower leg (2 with this name)
  33. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    tibi/o
    • tibia
    • common name: bones of the lower leg (2 with this name)
  34. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    tars/o
    • tarsals - also means the edge of the eyelid
    • common name: ankle bones
  35. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    calcane/o
    • calcaneus
    • common name: heel bone
  36. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    metatars/o
    • metatarsals (5 bones = instep)
    • common name: bones of the feet
  37. context: major bones of the body: bones of the lower extremities
    phalang/o
    • phalanges (3 bones in each toe except great/big toe which has 2)
    • common name: bones of the toes
  38. rib cage
    • exists in pairs (12 on each side of chest)
    • 7 upper pairs join directly with sternum by cartilage = true ribs
    • 5 lower pairs NOT directly joined to sternum = false ribs
    • - 2 last pairs of false ribs = floating ribs
  39. -graph
    instrument for recording
  40. radi/o
    • radiant energy
    • or radius (bones of the forearm)
  41. dist/o
    far or distant from the origin or point of attachment
  42. inter-
    between
  43. meta-
    change of next in a series
  44. proxim/o
    nearer the origin or point of attachment
  45. oste/o
    bone
  46. context: additional word parts and meanings
    ankyl/o
    stiff
  47. context: additional word parts and meanings
    arthr/o
    articulation, joint (haha very funny you don't smoke this)
  48. context: additional word parts and meanings
    -asthenia
    weakness
  49. context: additional word parts and meanings
    burs/o
    bursa (doesn't this mean purse or something?)
  50. context: additional word parts and meanings
    calc/i
    calcium (why couldn't they just make a cool word with Ca2+)
  51. context: additional word parts and meanings
    chondr/o
    cartilage
  52. context: additional word parts and meanings
    de-
    down, from, or reversing
  53. context: additional word parts and meanings
    meta-
    change or next in a series
  54. context: additional word parts and meanings
    ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon
  55. cartilage
    specialized type of dense connective tissue that is elastic but strong and that can withstand considerable pressure of tension.
  56. articulation
    • aka joint
    • place of union between two or more bones
  57. synovial joints
    • joints that have cavities between articulating bones
    • ex: elbow, knee, ankle, shoulder, hip joints
  58. bursae (bursa)
    sacs of fluid located in areas of friction
  59. context: 4 common types of joint motion
    extension
    • straightens a limb and the opposite of movement
    • ex: straighten leg
  60. context: 4 common types of joint motion
    flexion
    • bends a limb
    • ex: bend knee
  61. context: 4 common types of joint motion
    rotation
    • movement of a bone around its own axis
    • ex: turning head
  62. context: 4 common types of joint motion
    circumduction
    • circular movement of a limb at the far end
    • ex: arms moving in circular fashion
  63. ligaments
    strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect bones or cartilage and serve to support and strengthen joints
  64. ligamentous
    related to or like a ligament
  65. cardi/o
    heart
  66. in-
    not or inside
  67. micro-
    small
  68. -scope
    instrument used for viewing
  69. skelet/o
    skeleton
  70. viscer/o
    viscera (internal organs enclosed within a body cavity)
  71. abdomin/o
    abdomen
  72. bi-
    two
  73. brachi/o
    arm
  74. pector/o
    chest
  75. fascia
    fibrous membrane that covers, supports, and separates muscles
  76. fascial
    pertaining to fascia
  77. tendons
    bands of strong fibrous tissue that attach the muscles to the bones
  78. arthritis
    • arthr/o = joint
    • -itis = inflammation
    • any inflammatory condition of the joints characterized by pain, heat, swelling, redness, and limitation of movement
  79. osteo arthritis
    • oste/o = bone
    • arthr/o = joing
    • -itis = inflammation
    • AKA degenerative joint disease (DJD) - form of arthritis in which one or many joints undergo degenerative changes, particularly loss of articular cartilage
  80. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    • the second most commonly occurring connective tissue disease.
    • chronic, systemic (pertaining to the whole body) disease that often results in joint deformities, particularly of the hands and feet
  81. rheumatism
    general term for acute and chronic conditions characterized by inflammation, soreness, and stiffness of muscles and by pain in joints and associated structures
  82. rheumat/o
    rheumatism
  83. context: arthritis
    spondylarthritis
    inflammation of a vertebra (spine)
  84. context: arthritis
    polyarthritis
    • poly- = many
    • inflammation of more than one joint
  85. context: arthritis
    arthralgia and arthrodynia
    painful joint
  86. context: arthritis
    burs itis
    • burs/o = bursa
    • inflammation of a bursa
  87. context: arthritis
    ankyl osis
    • ankyl/o = stiff
    • joint is immobile and stiff
  88. lupus erythematosus (LE)
    autoimmune disease that involves connective tissue
  89. arthro scopy
    direct visualization of the interior of a joint using a special fiberoptic endoscope called an arthroscope
  90. arthrotomy
    incision of a joint
  91. arthropathy
    any disease of a joint
  92. gout
    • painful metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis.
    • characterized by inflammation of the joints, especially of those in the foot or knee
  93. hyper uric emia
    • hyper- = excessive
    • uric = uric acid
    • -emia = blood
  94. sarcomas
    cancers that arise from connective tissue, such as muscle or bone
  95. chondro sarcoma
    composed of masses of cartilage
  96. fibro sarcoma
    malignant tumor containing much fibrous tissue
  97. leukemias
    chronic or acute diseases of the blood-forming tissues characterized by unrestrained growth of leukocytes and their precursors.
  98. multiple myeloma
    • myel/o = bone marrow
    • -oma = tumor
    • disease characterized by the presence of many tumor masses in the bone and bone marrow. progressive and generally fatal
  99. poster/o
    behind
  100. osteitis deformans
    • Paget's disease
    • a skeletal disease of the elderly that is characterized by chronic bone inflammation. results in the thickening and softening of bones and in the bowing of the long bones
  101. dislocation
    displacement fo a bone from a joint
  102. fracture
    breaking of a bone, usually from sudden injury
  103. sprain
    injury to a joint that causes pain and disability, with the severity depending on the degree of injury to ligaments or tendons.
  104. strain
    excessive use of a part of the body to the extent that it is injured or trauma to a muscle caused by violent contraction or excessive forcible stretch.
  105. tendin itis
    • tendin/o = tendon
    • -itis = inflammation
    • inflammation of a tendon aka tendonitis
  106. context: the spine
    para plegia
    • para- = beside
    • -plegia = paralysis
    • paralysis of the lower portion of the body and of both legs
  107. context: the spine
    quadri plegia
    • quadri = four
    • -plegia = paralysis
    • paralysis of the arms and legs
  108. context: the spine
    herniated disk
    can press on the spinal cord or on a spinal nerve, causing pain
  109. context: the spine
    spinal bifida
    congenital abnormality characterized by defective closure of the bones of the spine
  110. context: the spine
    scoliosis
    lateral curvature of the spine
  111. context: the spine
    kyphosis
    • humpback or hunchback
    • exaggerated curvature of the spine from front to back
  112. rheumatoid spondylitis
    causes inflammation of cartilage between the vertebrae and can eventually cause neighboring vertebrae to fuse
  113. context: the spine
    ankylosed spine
    • poker spine
    • the whole spine becomes stiffened
  114. later/o
    lateral or side
  115. osteo porotics
    treat osteoporosis
  116. oste ectomy/ ostectomy
    excision of a bone (or portion of it)
  117. chondr ectomy
    excision of cartilage
  118. tendo plasty
    surgical repair of tendons
  119. myo plasty
    surgical repair of muscle
  120. laminectomy
    surgical removal of the bony posterior arch of a vertebra to permit surgical access to the disk so that the herniated material can be removed
  121. disk ectomy
    complete excision of an intervertebral disk
  122. vertebro plasty
    plastic-like substance is injected into the body of a fractured vertebra to stabilize and strengthen it
  123. bunion ectomy
    excision of a bunion (blechh :P)
  124. antiinflammatories
    used to reduce inflammation and pain (use the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs -NSAIDS)
  125. antiarthritics
    • various forms of therapy that relieve the symptoms of arthritis
    • DMARDS, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs: slower acting than NSAIDS)
  126. arthro centesis
    removal of excessive fluid accumulated in a synovial joint after injury and must be extracted with a needle
  127. arthro plasty
    any surgical reconstruction or replacement of a joint
  128. myelosuppression
    induced by cancer treatment
  129. beware
    metatars/o vs metacarp/o
    bones of the foot vs bones of the hand
  130. beware
    ankyl/o vs tars/o
    still vs ankle
  131. beware
    radi/o has TWO meanings
    bone of forearm and radiation

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