ORELA Study Guide
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[Skill 1.1] How can teachers better communicate with a diverse audience -- students? staff? administrators? parents?
We must take into consideration to adjust our communication styles for different audiences; we must recognize that some styles may not work for certain people and deal with a wide variety of cultures, genders, and individuals. We must continue to hold high expectations of our students both in and out of the classroom.
[Skill 1.2] How do students earn to write letters of the alphabet? What are the categories or stages of learning are there?
Learning to spell/speak is a continuous developmental process that students will continue to pass through multiple stages of writing [drawing/symbols to creating letters/words]. They learn each letter is a horizontal, vertical or diagonal line segment and can categorize them into short, tall, or tail letters.
[Skill 1.3] What are the positives and negatives of using media in the classroom?
Positives: It can make learning more productive and effective, boost being prepared for class, organization, parent-student relationships, positive studying skills, and participation in learning activities [even when including multi-cultural literature into the routine].
Negatives: Too much violence and uncensored sex being show to students on tv; it provides challenges to teachers and students.
[Skill 1.3] What are the stages when using multi-media in the classroom?
- 1. Figure out what students know/don't know and what they need to know
- 2. Design the tests
- 3. Find and modify past materials
- 4. Perform assignment
- 5. Evaluate procedure and revise for following terms
- Include pictures, bullet points, colors, and hands-on activities when possible
[Skill 1.4] What are the purposes for reading and writing workshops?
Reading: It allows students to read book they want to read, learn that other students have similar dreams, emotions, and needs by sharing and discussing out loud with others. Teachers should always have pre- and post-discussions and read new literature to the students that may not been able to be read on their own.
Writing: Involving multi-cultural pen-pals from a different state/country will also reinforce the idea that students of the same age may have similar views, beliefs, religions, etc. Teachers should include guest-speakers; students should write down questions before the speaker and a thank you note after the speaker leaves.
[Skill 1.5] What are the steps when preparing a speech/presentation?
- 1. Discovery [find topic/sources]
- 2. Organization [find purpose and write intro/conclusion]
- 3. Editing *Most important stage* [make drastic changes when needed]
[Skill 2.1] What are the five stages for writing?
- 1. Prewriting [gather ideas through clustering, brainstorming, mapping, free-writing etc] for topics.
- 2. Writing [compose first draft]
- 3. Revising [make changes on first draft] - grammatical and mechanical
- 4. Editing [proofread draft for more errors] - punctuations
- 5. Publishing [read out loud]
These steps are recursive [happen out of order] or may happen more than one time.
[Skill 2.1] What are some examples of pre-writing activities?
Discussion of possible topics, mapping out ideas, dividing into smaller groups for discussion, clustering, mind-mapping, etc
[Skill 2.1] What is the purpose of drafting/revising and editing/proofreading?
- Draft/Revise: for first draft [class/home] is using a rubric checklist for critiquing
- Edit/Proofread: Correct punctuation and mechanical errors and produce final editing before final draft/publishing.
[Skill 2.2] What are the four main types of writing forms [modes]? [Examples]
- 1. Narrative [tells a story in a chronological order] -- news story or movie
- 2. Descriptive [make experience available through the five senses] -- poetry
- 3. Expository [inform the audience but not change their minds] -- driving directions or essay/reports
- 4. Persuasion [change the minds of the audience/get them to do something] -- sermons
PERSUASIVE -- a combination of all four forms [modes] -- letters
[Skill 2.3] What are the four main sentence structures?
- 1. Simple [Nora wrote a letter]
- 2. Compound [Nora wrote a letter, and Vicky drew a picture]
- 3. Complex [While Nora wrote a letter, Vicky drew a picture]
- 4. Compound-Complex [When Deborah asked the girls to demonstrate their newfound skills, Nora wrote a letter, and Vicky drew a picture]
[Skill 2.4] What are different types of conventions? What are some examples of transitional phrases?
- Conventions: paraphrasing, summarizing, transitioning between paragraphs, topic/concluding sentences, appropriate vocabulary
- Transitional phrases: however, furthermore, although, likewise
[Skill 2.5] Subject-verb agreement [verb must agree with the number of subjects]
What are examples of verbs?
- Verb: TO DO SOMETHING [an action/state of being]
- To: take, root, sharpen, play, defend, pull, be, am, are, is, were/was, see, have/has
- Verbs can also end in "-ing" -- trying, blowing, being, having
[Skill 2.5] What are the six verb tenses?
- 1. Present
- 2. Past
- 3. Future
- 4. Present-Perfect [something started in the past and conclude/continue in the present]
- 5. Past-Perfect [action occurring as a precedent of another action]
- 6. Future-Perfect [something started in the past and conclude in the future]
[Skill 2.5] What is a pronoun? What are some examples?
- Pronoun: TAKES PLACE OF A NOUN [comes before]
- Examples: He/she, they, we, who/whom, he's, she's it, his/her, no one, any one, everyone
- Pronouns can be three things:
- POSSESSIVE: [point things out] This cookie is MINE. It is not HERS. THIS, THESE, THOSE
- INTERROGATIVE: [helps form a question] WHAT, WHO, WHICH, WHOM
- INDEFINITE: [tells about people] SOMEONE, SOMETHING in here smells.
[Skill 2.5] What is an adjective?
- Adjectives: Describes a thing, idea or living-being
- Examples: hairy, cool, tall. tan, frisky, orange, hot, in-between, leaky, new, easy, broken, favorite, chilly, undercooked, old black, wrinkled, large, young/old, busy, sick, stretchy, lean, vibrant, one-sided etc
- Adjectives can end in --er and --est with the exception of "worst" and "most"
- Mrs. C is the BETTER of the two coaches. That is that HASTIEST excuse she used.
[Skill 2.5] Plurals [ending in soft/hard consonant sounds followed with a silent E are made by adding -S.
Finger --> fingers, Home --> homes, Banana --> bananas, Numeral --> numerals, Dress --> dresses, Church --> churches, Tomato --> tomatoes
[Skill 2.5] Plurals: nouns ending in Y preceded by a vowel just add -S
Boy --> boys, Alley --> alleys
[Skill 2.5] Nouns ending in Y preceded by a consonant is changing the Y to an I and adding -ES
Examples: baby --> babies, poppy --> poppies
[Skill 2.5] Noun plurals formed irregularly or remaining the same
Example: sheep, deer, children, leaves, oxen
[Skill 2.5] Plurals [open/hyphenated compounds adding the change to the word that changes the number]
Example: fathers-in-law, courts-martial, masters of art, doctors of medicine
[Skill 2.5] What are possessive plurals?
Possessive of singular nouns = add an apostrophe followed by the letters creating 'S
- Possessive plurals are something personal to a single individual
- Example: baby's bottle, father's job, elephant's eye, teacher's desk
[Skill 2.5] Possessive plural nouns that DONT end in S = add 'S
Example: children's shoes, deer's antlers, cattle's horns
[Skill 2.6] Punctuation [in relation to quotation marks]. If a quoted statement is DECLARATIVE, place the period __[a]_____ of the closing quotation marks.
Example: "The airplane crashed on the runway during takeoff."
[Skill 2.6] Punctuation [if the quotation is followed by other words in the sentence, place a comma __[a]__ the closing quotation marks and a period at the end of the sentence
Example: "The airplane crashed on the runway during takeoff," said the announcer.
[Skill 2.6] Sentences that are EXCLAMATORY, place the ? or ! positioned ___[a]___ of the closing quotation marks if the quote is a statement or command
Example: I was embarrassed when Mrs. W said, "Your slip is showing"!
[Skill 2.6] Sentences that are DECLARATIVE but the quotation is a question/exclamation, place the ? or ! __[a]__ the quotation marks
Example: The hall monitor yelled, "Fire!Fire!" "Fire!Fire!"
[Skill 2.6] Using periods with parenthesis/brackets [Place the period __[a]___ the parenthesis/brackets if they enclose a complete sentence
Example: Steven was a confirmed alcoholic and drug addict [He admitted as much to other journalists in Cuba.]
[Skill 2.6] Period with parenthesis/brackets [When enclosed matter is at the end of the sentence requiring quotation marks, place the period __[a]__ of the parenthesis/brackets]
Example: "The Secretary of State consulted with the ambassador [Powell]."
[Skill 2.6] Commas
- Separate two or more adjectives [to describe something] or three or more nouns, phrases or clauses
- Example: Maggie's hair was dull, dirty, and lice-ridden
[Skill 2.6] Using double quotation marks with other punctuation
Example: The works of Shakespeare, "the bard of Avon," have been contested as originating with other authors.
Example: "You'll get my money," the old man warned, "when 'Hell freezes over'."
[Skill 2.6] Semi-colons and colons
- Semi-colons: separate independent clauses when a second clause is introduced by a transitional verb
- Example: The Elizabethans modified the rhyme scheme of the sonnet; thus, it was called the English sonnet.
- Example: Leading scorers in the WNBA were Kaizhaw Zheng, averaging 23.9 points per game, Lisa Leslie, 22; and Cynthia Cooper, 19.5
Colons: placed at a beginning of a list of items
[Skill 2.6] Dashes and Capitalization
- Dashes: denote sudden breaks in thought
- Capitalization: for all proper names of people [organizations, agencies of Government], places [countries, parks, or specific geographical locations] and things [political parties, historical/cultural terms] and religious terms [person/group, sacred writings].
[Skill 3.1] Literacy forms: Allegory, ballad, epic, and legend
- Allegory: Story with characters representing vices w/ symbolic meaning
- Ballad: Story sung/told with music
- Epic: Long poem reflecting societies values
- Legend: Narratives mixed with fact and fiction
[Skill 3.1] Literacy forms also include: Drama, Epistle, Essay, Fable, Myth, Novel, Poem, Romance, and Short Story
- Drama: Themes of comedy/tragedy with five acts
- Epistle: Letter not meant for pubic distribution
- Fable: Tale with morals [animals that speak/act human]
- Myth: Universally shared within a culture to explain history/traditions
- Romance: Imaginary conflicts between heroes and villans/monsters
[Skill 3.2] What are five examples of non-fictional writing?
- 1. Biography/Autobiography
- 2. Essay
- 3. Narrative nonfiction [information that tells a story]
- 4. Nonfiction [information on real-life subjects]
- 5. Speech
What is an adverb?
- A word that DESCRIBES when, where and how [often/much] typically ending in --LY
- Example: quickly, now, patiently, ultra-suspiciously, sharply, quietly, slowly
- [How often] seldom, always/never, sometimes/usually,
- [How much] extremely, somewhat, hardly
- [Gives time, place or #] Yesterday, there, first, then, next
- Verbs also modify verbs: slowly he at and she's REALLY blue
- Adjective of "good" = adverb of "well"
What is a Preposition?
- A word that CONNECTS a noun/pronoun to other words in a sentence [describes the location of a noun/pronoun]
- Example: in, beside, over, under, by, above, next to
- [Tells places/time] past, during, after, in-between, at
- [Gives directions] to, over, down beyond, around, along, toward, across
[Skill 3.3] Fiction is divided into three areas. What are the requirements?
- 1. Story
- 2. Novel
- 3. Novella
Main character, setting, plot, climax and resolution versus NON-FICTION is to INFORM the readers [review four modes of literature]
[Skill 3.4] What are the four major time periods of writing?
- 1. Neoclassism
- 2. Romanticism
- 3. Realism
- 4. Naturalism
[Skill 3.4] Neoclassism -- Name 2 famous authors and describe what this time period is about
- Classical writings from ancient Greece/Rome focusing on the entire group [not the individual]
- Authors include: John Dryden/Alexander Pope
[Skill 3.4] Romanticism -- Name authors of both time periods [British and American] and describe what this time period is about
- Writings included emotions/feelings with themes of chivalric and ambivalence with much imagination included
- First Generation: British: Wadsworth/Coleridge [wrote about everyday people and events in life]; American: Emerson/Thoreau [emphasized romance and reasoning]
- Second Generation: British: John Keats [poetry] with themes of love, beaut, nature and inspiration.
[Skill 3.4] Realism -- what were the writings focusing on? Who were some famous authors for this time period?
- Themes of aristocracies, nobilities and the "gods" -- a common man with his SES problems;
- Authors include: Hemingway, Hardy and Shaw
[Skill 3.4] Naturalism -- a type of realism writings that focused on ...
- An entire society and their economic problems/struggles [ghetto survival, hunger, single parenting]
- Author: Emily Zoa wrote about an single French family based on several generations through "scientific observation"
[Skill 3.4] What are 5 periods of writing from Continental European literature?
- 1. Medieval period
- 2. Renaissance
- 3. Restoration/Enlightenment
- 4. Romantic
- 5. Victorian
[Skill 3.4] Medieval Period -- what are 2 famous authors and types of writings from this period?
Authors include Chaucer [father of English literature] and Thomas Maloy [stories of King Arthur,, Guinevere, and Knights of the Roundtable]
Christian monks [wrote Beowolf]
[Skill 3.4] Renaissance Period: Theatrical plays written by
Shakespeare [Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, King Lear]
[Skill 3.4] Restoration/Enlightenment Period -- themes of writing include
- 1. Politics
- 2. Monarchy system
[Skill 3.5] Romantic Period -- Name 2 famous authors for both generations and four additional American authors.
- British [First]: Wadsworth
- British [Second]: John Keats
- American: Charles Lamb, Jane Austin, Bronte Sisters and George Eliot.
[Skill 3.4] Victorian Period themes include
- Diversity and production through three areas
- 1. "Victorian Poets" [Alred Lord Tennyson]
- 2. "Pre-Raphaelites" [Painters/poets against Poets -- Raphael painted American authors like Dickens/Hardy]
- 3. "Victorian Drama" [Oscar Wilde] showing morals.
[Skill 3.4] Early 20th century authors include:
George Bernard Shaw [Superman], Joe Conrad, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, and DH Lawrence, TS Eliot and Sylvia Plath.
[Skill 3.4] Famous authors from other international countries
- Friedrich von Schiller [William Tell]
- Herman Hesse [Siddartha]
- Hans Christian Andersen [Little Mermaid/Thumbelina]
- Selma Lagerlof [Wonderful Adventure of Nils]
- Alesandre Dumas [Three Musketeers]
- Victor Hugo [Hunchback of Notre Dame/Les Miserables]
- Fran Kafta [Metamorphosis]
- Homer [Odyssey]
[Skill 3.5] Genres and works of literature for children/adolescents:
Drama, Fable, Fairy Tale, Fantasy, Fiction in verse and Folklore
- Drama: Theatrical plays showing emotions via dialogue and action
- Fable: Shows morals; animals speak as humans
- Fantasy: Fictional characters w/ strange settings
- Fiction in verse: full-length novels
- Folklore: Songs/stories told by "folk" people handed down to younger generations
[Skill 3.5] Genres and works of literature for children/adolescents:
Horror, Humor, Legend, Mythology, Realistic Fiction, Tall Tale
- Horror: Evokes feelings of dread for both characters and reader
- Humor: Fun and excitement to entertain
- Legend: based on fact with imaginative materials
- Realistic Fiction: Story that can happen in real life
- Tall Tale: Exaggerated story with heroes doing the impossible
[Skill 3.6] What is the purpose for editorial cartoons?
- It is a symbolic drawing representing the author's ideas
- It can be traced back to the 16th century where
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