Sociology Test 1.txt

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Sociology Test 1.txt
2010-09-27 01:11:20

Exam 1 CH.1-3
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  1. Define sociology
    The scientific study of human social activity and groups
  2. Define sociological perspective
    The special point of view of sociology that sees special patterns of society in the lives of particular people
  3. Define global perspective
    The study of the larger world and the society's place in it
  4. Origins of sociology
    Changes in society, growth in cities, and political change
  5. Who is August Comte?
    Father of socioloy
  6. Law of 3 stages (Transformation of societies, simple to complex)
    • 1. Theological explanation/ religious explanations (its gods way)
    • 2. Metaphysical stage (karma)
    • 3. Positivist stage- uses science to explain why things happen and/or happening
  7. Structural- functual approach
    Sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
  8. Social conflict appoach
    Sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. Looks at factors such as social class race age sexual orientation power education and social prestige
  9. Major theoretical approaches
    • 1. Structural Functional
    • 2. social conflict
    • 3. symbolic interaction
  10. Robert Merton's functions
    • 1. Manifest- obvious intended consequences
    • 2. latent unintended- (hidden curriculum)
    • 3. dysfunctional-negative "consequences"
  11. Define theory
    a statement of how and why specific facts are related
  12. Sociology theory
    to explain social behavior in the real world
  13. Symbolic interaction approach
    sees society as the product of the everday interactions of individual
  14. Sources of truth
    • 1. belief/faith we know
    • 2. experts (physicians)
    • 3. general agreement
    • 4. science (way of knowing)
  15. Research cycle
    • 1. select topic
    • 2. identify a problem/ ask a question
    • 3. literature review
    • 4. form hypothesis
    • 5. choose a research strategy
    • 6. select research method
    • 7. collect and analyze data
    • 8. publish data
  16. Problems with research
    • 1. human behavior is not 100% predictable
    • 2. the presence of researchers will affect our behaviors "Hawthorne effect"
    • 3. its difficult to be objective because we select topics we like
    • 4. the world is constantly changing
    • 5. the use of technology/ media is constantly changing
  17. Define culture
    the entire way of life of a group of people through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next
  18. Categories of culture
    • 1. material culture
    • 2. non material culture (symbolic culture)
  19. Points of view
    • 1. ethnocentrism
    • 2. cultural relativism
  20. components of culture
    • 1. symbols (gestures)
    • 2. language (sapir)
    • 3. values (ideas about what is desirable or right and wrong is a particular group)
    • 4. norms (normal behavior)
  21. cultural variations
    • 1. multiculturalism
    • 2. dominant culture
    • 3. subculture
    • 4. counterculture
  22. Cultural wars- ideal culture vs. real culture
    Ideal cultures- the norms values and patterns of behavior that members of a society believe should be observed

    Real cultural- the norms, values and patterns of behavior that actually exist within a society
  23. Define and discuss the distinguishing features of the sociological perspective
    guides public policy, helps our daily lives, allows preparation for a multitude of diverse careers
  24. functional structural approach
    • a. macro-level
    • b. robert merton
  25. social conflict
    • a. macro level
    • b. karl marx- conflict is necessary because it creates change
    • 1. gender- conflict aproach- pt. of view that focuses on inequality and conflict btw. men and women
    • 2. feminism- support of social inequality for women and men 3. race
  26. Robert mertons theory
    you can look at anything in society and it has a function