Archaeological Science

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Archaeological Science
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2010-09-29 13:15:16
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  1. archaeology
    the study of our human past, combining the themes of time and change, using the material remains that have survived
  2. biological anthropology
    the study of the biological nature of our nearest relatives and ourselves
  3. cultural (social) anthrolopology
    the study of living peoples with a focus on the shared aspects of the human experience
  4. linguistics
    the study of human languages
  5. anthropolgical archaeology
    archaeological investigations that seek to answer the larger, fundamental questions about humans and human behavior taught in departments of anthropology
  6. prehistory
    the time in the past before written history, often synonymous with archaeology
  7. historical archaeology
    refers primarily to the archaeology of the civilizations of the recent industrail era, since 1700 or so
  8. classical arcaheology
    a branch of archaeology primarily concerned with the literate Mediterranean civilizations of Greece and Rome
  9. cultural resource management (CRM)
    Historical preservation in the United states involves survey and excavation to determine that historical and cultural resources are not being destroyed by development and construction
  10. pseudoscience
    false or misleading claims about the nature of the world or the past, masquerading as science
  11. theory
    a generally accepted explanation of observed events or relationships
  12. punctuated equilibrium
    abrupt and sudden changes in the pace of evolution
  13. experimental archaeology
    modern experiments to reporoduce artifacts, architecture, and/or techniques from the past
  14. research design
    the overall strategy of intended methods, research area, and planned analysis for answering a question or questions about the past
  15. ethnoarchaeology
    archaeological study of living societies for information to help better understand the past
  16. culture
    a means of human adaptation based on intelligence, experience, learning, and the use of tools; the general set of behaviors and knowledge that humans use to survive and adapt
  17. archaeological culture
    a group of related materials from a region that indicate a common or shared way of doing things
  18. demography
    the study of human populations with a focus on size, age, and sex distribution, birth and death rates, and migration. Prehistoric demography is also known as paleodemography
  19. environment
    a group of related materials from a region that indicate a common or shared way of doing things
  20. technology
    the material, equipment, techniques, and knowledge that allow humans to convert natural resources into tools, food, clothing, shelter, and other products they need or want
  21. economy
    the means and methods that society uses to obtain food, water, and resources for maintenance and growth
  22. organization
    structure and interaction in human resources into tools, food, clothing, shelter, and other products they need or want
  23. ideology
    the explanation of human, natural, and supernatural relationships through belief, ritual, and ceremony
  24. population
    (1) All of the people living at a place or in a region. An archaeological population generally refers to the people related through membership in the same group

    (2) All of the items or units of interest in statistical sampling
  25. burial population
    the set of human remains found interred in a site or cemetery
  26. population density
    the number of people per unit of area e.g., square kilometer
  27. home range
    the geographic area an animal uses for feeding and other activities; in archaeology, the term generally refers to the area used by mobile hunter-gathers
  28. territory
    a recognized and defended area utilized b a group of society, often associated with agricultural societies
  29. country
    a sovereign, region, marked by boundaries and defended by military power, usually associated with state-level societies
  30. empire
    large sovereign space, expanded by military conquest and encompassing several countries and/or territories, associated with state-level societies
  31. shaduf
    a manual water hoist used for irrigation in ancient egypt
  32. saqia
    an oxen-powered water wheel used for irrigation in ancient egypt
  33. invention
    the creation or development of new ideas or techniques for solving problems
  34. diffusion
    the spread of new ideas or materials from group to another
  35. migration
    movement of new people into an area
  36. subsistence
    the activities and materials that people use to obtain food
  37. hunter-gatherers
    people who obtain their food from wild plants and animals, not domesticated species
  38. foragers
    nonfarmers; groups who subsist by hunting, collecting, fishing, and the like without domesticated plants or animals
  39. exchange
    transfer of material or information among individuals or groups
  40. recipocity
    the exchange of items of roughly equal value
  41. redistribution
    the movement of goods to a central place from which they are rationed or portioned out to members of society
  42. trade
    economic transactions between individuals or groups involving bartering, buying, or selling
  43. division of labor
    organization of tasks involving different groups doing different activities for the sake of efficieny
  44. cord-marking
    a distinctive decoration on pottery produced by pressing a cord-wrapped stick into the soft clay of a pot before firing
  45. pithouse
    a dwelling constructed over a hole in the ground, semisubterranean structure; a structure built on a semisubterranean foundation
  46. ethnogrpahy
    the detailed investigation of a group of people, traditionally non-Western, through participant observation and descriptions of practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs
  47. ethnohistory
    branch of ethnography that combines sources from history, archaeology, and oral traditioons in the serch for answers about past people
  48. ethnographic analogy
    comparison between ethnography and archaeology to explain similar things
  49. material culture
    tangible, surviving evidence of human activities
  50. archaeological record
    the body of information about the past that has survived to the present
  51. artifacts
    the objects and materials that people have made and used
  52. sites
    accumulations of artifacts and features, representing the places where people lived or carried out certain activities
  53. regions
    large geographic areas, containing a number of archaeological sites that have been physically or conceptually modified
  54. scale
    (1) different levels of discovery, analysis, and intpretation in archaeology

    (2) the size of a map relative to the area it portrays
  55. atributes
    detailed characteristics of archaeological materials and information
  56. hominin
    early human ancestor, fossil form
  57. context
    place and association among the archaeological materials and the situation in which they occur
  58. primary context
    the original position of an object in its place of discard or deposition; in place
  59. in situ
    the original position of an object in its place of discard or deposition; in place; primary context
  60. provenience
    the place of discovery or origin. Where an item is from
  61. ecofacts
    unmodified, natural items found in archaeological contexts, often plant or animal material
  62. flora
    generic term for the archaeological remains of plants
  63. fauna
    generic term for the archaeological remains of animals
  64. features
    the permanent facilities and structures that people construct in or on the earth
  65. midden
    any substantial accumulation of garbage or waste at a locus of human activity; archaeological deposits of trash and/or shells that accumulate in heaps and mounds. A shell midden is a specific type of midden composed largely of mollusk shells
  66. inhumation
    burial of all or part of a corpse; contrast with cremation
  67. cremation
    the incinerated remains of a human body
  68. cenotaph
    an empty grave, without a body
  69. activity area
    location of specific tasks or behaviors within a site
  70. assemblage
    a related set of different things
  71. industry
    one object or artifact type that appears in a number of assemblages
  72. component
    an assemblage from a single layer, living floor, or occupation horizon; a set of materials in contemporary use by the same group of people
  73. multicomponent
    a mixture of different episodes or periods of activity
  74. single component
    the remains of a single episode of human activity
  75. occupation horizon
    the layer or stratum that accumulates during an episode of human habitation and activity
  76. living floor
    the actual places where people lived and carried out their activities
  77. tradition
    the continuity of similar artifacts and design through time
  78. horizon
    layer or assemblage associated with geological strata or archaeological contents - usage includes a soil horizon, a cultural; the geographic extent of similar artifacts and design in space
  79. phase
    a particular period in time and space where an assemblage occurs
  80. open-air sites
    sites on land and uncovered, in contrast to sites in caves or rockshelters
  81. rockshelter
    a shallow cave or overhang, defined by having a width greater than its depth
  82. surface sites
    sites visible on the surface of the ground
  83. nonsite (off site)
    The areas between archaeological sites where there are occasional traces of human activitiy in the form of isolated artifacts, features, or other evidence
  84. residential sites
    places of habitation where people live and carry out the everyday activities that sustain life
  85. camp
    a short-term, temporary settlement, usually associated with hunter-gatherers or nomads
  86. hamlet
    a small village with just a handful of houses and a small number of inhabitants
  87. village
    a small residential unit of permanent houses with a population of less than a few hundred
  88. town
    larger than a village with internal differentiation in size and location of structures and usually containing one or more public buildings
  89. city
    an urban agglomeration with a population of 10,000 or more, internal differentiation, and distinct civic or ceremonial areas within its boundries
  90. extractive sites
    nonresidential localities where some members of the society obtain food or other resources
  91. shell midden
    a specialized kind of extractive site, a mound made up o f large dumps of shell from mussels, oysters, or other species
  92. rock art
    decoration of rock surface by painting, pecking, or engraving
  93. pictographs
    rock art made by the application of pigment to rock surfaces
  94. petroglyphs
    rock art made by removing the outer surface of a rock by carving or hammering
  95. landscape
    a humanly modified or perceived area
  96. mound (aka barrows, tumuli)
    a built pile or heap of earth or stones, resembling a very small hill, usually a burial monument
  97. stela
    a stone monument, carved and/or painted with designs and/or inscriptions, common in the Maya region
  98. tell
    an accumulated mound of occupation debris; man-made settlement mounds of earth and trash that accumulate from the decomposition of mud-brick, common in southwest asia and southeast europe
  99. gravity model
    a concept from geography whereby interaction among settlements is based on size, similar to interaction among planets based on gravity. Bigger communities have more interaction and influence on smaller communities
  100. site formation
    the processes involved in the creation of archaeological sites
  101. systemic context
    the actual use of artifacts and features in the past or present
  102. archaeological context
    the buried or surface context in which archaeological remains ar found; what survives to the present
  103. cultural transformation
    modification of the archaeological record caused by human activity
  104. natural transformation
    modification of the archaeological record by geological, hydrological, or chemical activity
  105. slopewash
    gradual movement of sediments from higher to lower ground as a natural process of erosion and deposition
  106. taphonomy
    the study of what happens to a plat or animal between its death and the time it is found as a fossil or archaeological remain
  107. bioturbation
    disturbance of the archaeological record from plant and animal activities such as root growth or animal digging
  108. living horizon
    the actual surface of occupation at an archaeological site, sometime spreserved under unusual conditions of deposition
  109. fieldwork
    collectively known as fieldwork, an important part of archaeological research involves survey for and excavation of archaeological materials, practices normally done outdoors (in the field)
  110. survey
    (1) A systematic reconnaissance of the landscape for artifacts and sites on the ground through aerial photography, field walking, soil analysis, or geophysical prospecting

    (2) mapping of sites and areas using surveying instruments such as a total station or GPS
  111. excavation
    the exposure, recording, and recovery of buried materials from the past
  112. amateur archaeologist
    in contrast to professional archaeologists, who are educated in the discipline, amateur or vocational archaeologists collect artifacts, study archaeology, and participate in professionally run excavations. Amateur archaeologoists are an important part of the field and have made substantial contributions to our knowledge of the past
  113. reconnaissance
    the search for artifacts and sites by survey or field walking
  114. instrumental surveying
    making maps and plans of places and areas of archaeological interest using survey instruments such as a total station or global positioning satellite systems
  115. playa
    a dry lake bed common geomorphological feature in the wester US
  116. seasonal round
    the pattern of subsistence and settlement found among hunter-gathers who change residence regularly during the course of a year
  117. ecological constraint
    limitations on human activity imposed by the environment. For example aird conditions are an ecological constraint on agriculture
  118. study area
    a generic term for the region of focus of a research project
  119. sample
    a portion of a whole (n)

    to take a part of a deposit, site, feature, or artifact for analysis (v)

    The term sampling describes the process of taking a sample. This can be a one-time event, a series of actions, or a statistical process. Statistical sampling is a specific method for taking samples that allows probability estimates to be made about the population that is being sampled. Archaeologists almost always take samples, but only rarely is this done in a statistical fashion
  120. dual-residence
    a subsistence and settlement pattern observed among some groups of hunter-gatherers who live in two places at different seasons during the course of a year
  121. field notes
    the records of a field project of survey or excavation with description of activities, finds, records of samples, drawings, photographs, and the like. An important document of the research project
  122. datum
    a point with known locational coordinates and elevation; a fixed point for surveying
  123. drawing grid
    normally a 1-m2 frame of wood or aluminum fitted with a grid of string or wire at 20-cm intervals. It is used for drawing detailed plans of vertical sections or horizontal floors in archaeological excavations
  124. contour map
    a schematic map of topography, the three-dimensional surface of the earth or other features. Contours are conventionally shown as a series of curved, concentric lines reflecting elevation or relief of a surface
  125. stadia rod
    essentially, a very long ruler that is held vertically and read by an optical surveying instrument to determine distance above the ground
  126. scale
    a ratio representing the size of an illustration, map, or reproduction in a publication
  127. alidade
    an optical surveying instrument used for making contour maps
  128. total station
    a modern surveying instrument using an infrared laser and computer to calculate distance and three-dimensional angles to determine the precise location of a target in terms of grid coordinates and elevation. Replaces levels, alidades, transits, and theolodites
  129. Geographic Information systems (GIS)
    a computer program(s) for the storage, display, and analysis of geographic and spatial data. The basic concept involves the use of overlaid maps of an area in combination with locational information and spatial analytical capabilities
  130. Global Positional System (GPS)
    A locational and navigational system for determining precise three-dimensional coordinates (longitude, latitude, and elevation) of any place on the earth's surface. Satellites broadcast locational information used by GPS equipment to determine the exact position. Replaces traditional, manual land-survey methods
  131. cursus monument
    paired linear earthworks that mark an avenue or long, rectangular area in Neolithic Europe
  132. auger (aka corer, borer)
    a tool for drilling holes, used in archaeology for coring into soil and taking samples
  133. remote sensing
    a variety of techniques used for obtaining information about surface or buried objects. Aboveground techniques normally involve aircraft or satellites using photography, radar, and other methods to locate and map features on or near the surface. Below ground techniques use radar, resistivity, magnetic properties, or chemistry to search for buried features
  134. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)
    a satellite instrument that records multiple wavelengths of light reflected from the earth's surface
  135. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
    An instrument that beams energy waves to the ground surface and records the reflected energy
  136. metal detectors
    instruments that emit an electromagnetic field, which is disrupted by the presence of metal objects in the ground, used for finding buried metal objects
  137. magnetomerter (aka gradiometer)
    Measures the earth's magnetic field at an archaeological site to locate buried walls and pits
  138. resistivity meter
    used to measure electrical conductivity in soils, which may be due to the presence of buried disturbances such as fireplaces, burials, or other structures
  139. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) (aka georadar)
    an instrument that sends radar waves through the ground to reveal buried features
  140. playa
    a dry lake bed, common geomorphological feature in the western united states
  141. seasonal round (aka annual cycle)
    the pattern of subsistence and settlement found among hunter-gatherers who change residence regularly during the course of a year
  142. ecological constraint
    limitations on human activity imposed by the environment. For example, arid conditions are an ecological constraint on agriculture
  143. study area
    a generic term for the region of focus of a research project
  144. sample
    a portion of the whole (n)

    to take a part of a deposit, site, feature, or artifact for analysis (v)

    The term sampling describes the process of taking a sample. This can be a one-time event, a series of actions, or a statistical process. Statistical sampling is a specific method for taking samples that allows probability estimates to be made about the population that is being sampled. Archaeologists almost always take samples, but only rarely is this done in a statistical fashion
  145. dual-residence
    a subsistence and settlement pattern observed among some groups of hunter-gatherers who live in two places at different seasons during the course of a year
  146. field notes
    the records of a field project of survey or excavations with descriptions of activities, finds, records of samples, drawings, photographs, and the like. An important document of the research project
  147. section (aka profile)
    the walls of trenches and squares in excavations that show a cross section of the deposits and reveal the sequence and methods of formation
  148. posthole
    the hole or depression left when a post is removed from the ground, an indication of construction posts
  149. inhumation
    burial of all or part of a corpse; contrast with cremation
  150. cremation
    a funeral practice involving immolation of the corpse. Cremation burials usually consist of ash and a few fragments of bone and teeth and are often found in urns and small pits. Also, the incinerated remains of human body. Contrast with inhumation
  151. screening
    sifting or sieving of sediments through fine screens to separate them from artifacts and ecofacts
  152. flotation
    an archaeological technique for recovering charred plant remains using water and density differences between heavy and light materials in sediments. Dry sediments are stirred into water, and the lighter plant remains float to the top
  153. datum
    a point with known locational coordinates and elevation; a fixed point for surveying
  154. drawing grid (aka planning frame)
    normally a 1-m2 frame of wood or aluminum fitted with a grid of string or wire at 20-cm intervals. It is used for drawing detailed plans of vertical sections or horizontal floors in archaeological excavations
  155. contour map
    a schematic map of topography, the three-dimensional surface of the earth or other features. Contours are conventionally shown as a series of curved, concentric lines reflecting elevation or relief of a surface
  156. stadia rod
    essentially, a very long ruler that is held vertically and read by an optical surveying instrument to determine distance above the ground
  157. scale
    a ratio representing the size of an illustration, map, or reproduction in a publication
  158. alidade
    an optical surveying instrument used for making contour maps
  159. total station
    a modern surveying instrument using an infrared laser and computer to calculate distance and three-dimensional angles to determine the precise location of a target tin terms of grid coordinates and elevation. Replaces levels, alidades, transits, and theolodites
  160. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
    a computer programs(s) for the storage, display, and analysis of geographic and spatial data. The basic concept involves the use of overlaid maps of an area in combination with locational information and spatial analytical capabilities
  161. Global Positioning System (GPS)
    a locational and navigational system for determining precise three-dimensional coordinates (longitude, latitude, and elevation) of any place on the earth's surface. Satellites broadcast locational information used by GPS equipment to determine the exact position. Replaces traditional manual land-survey methods
  162. cursus monument
    paired linear earthworks that mark an avenue oor long, rectangular area in Neolithic Europe
  163. auger (aka corer, borer)
    a tool for drilling holes, used in archaeology for coring into soil and taking samples.
  164. remote sensing
    a variety of techniques used for obtaining information about surface or buried objects. Aboveground techniques normally involve aircraft or satellites using photgraphy, radar, and other methods to locate and map features on or near the surface. Belowground techniques use radar, resistivity, magnetic properties, or chemistry to search for buried features
  165. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)
    a satellite instrument that records multiple wavelengths of light reflected from the earth's surface
  166. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
    an instrument that beams energy waves to the ground surface and records the reflected energy
  167. metal dectors
    instruments that emit an electromagnetic field, which is disrupted by the presence of metal objects in the ground, used for finding buried metal objects
  168. magnetometer (aka gradiometer)
    measures the earth's magnetic field at an archaeological site to locate buried walls and pits
  169. resistivity meter
    used to measure electrical conductivity in soils, which may be due to the presence of buried disturbances such as fireplaces, burials, or other structures
  170. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) (aka georadar)
    an instrument that sends radar waves through the ground to reveal buried features
  171. geoarchaeology
    archaeological research concerned with geology and the earth sciences
  172. geomorphology
    the branch of geology concerned with the study of the shape of the land; involves classification, description, origin, and change of land forms
  173. uniformitarianism
    geological principle that the processes of erosion and deposition observed in action today also operated in the past
  174. levee
    a raised bank created by repeated flooding
  175. oxbow lake
    a stranded river meander left as a lake in a floodplain
  176. point bar
    a low ridge of sand and gravel that forms underwater along the inner bank of a meandering stream
  177. sediment
    any particulate matter (clay, sand silt, mud, leaves, shell, and other materials) that can be transported by water. Opposite of rock
  178. soil
    surface sediments weather in situ
  179. weathering
    chemical and biological processes that break down and change the surface of the earth, altering its color, texture, or composition
  180. horizon
    layer or assemblage associated with geological strata or archaeological contents, e.g., usage incluudes a soil horizon, a cultural horizon; the geographic extent of similar artifacts and design in space
  181. pedologist
    soil scientists
  182. techtonic
    geological forces that move and deform the earth's crust
  183. stratigraphy
    a sequence of layers in the ground
  184. superposition
    principle that governs the interpretation of stratigraphy - in a sequence of the oldest layers are on the bottom and the youngest layers are on the top
  185. midden
    any substantial accumulation of garbage or waste at a locus of human activity; archaeological deposits of trash and/or shellls that accumulate in heaps and mounds. As shell midden is a specific type of midden composed largely of mollusk shells
  186. cut
    geomorphological term for erosion of sediments, also human digging
  187. fill
    geomorphological term for deposition of sediments, also human filling
  188. sterile
    containing no archaeological materials
  189. plow zone
    the upper part of soil layers that has been disturbed by plowing
  190. plan view
    a bird's-eye or top-down view of a site or region. A kind of map of the features and characteristics of a place. A standard representation of archaeological sites and areas
  191. profile
    a cross-section of archaeological or geological deposits showing the stratigraphy, sequence of layers, also, the cross-section of the walls of a ceramic vessel, a measure of shape
  192. micromorphology
    the study of anthropogenic sediments at a microscopic level
  193. anthropogenic
    created or produced by human activity, e.g. anthropogenic soils are a result of human activity
  194. composition
    the minceral and organic contents in the petrographic thing section
  195. texture
    the size and sorting of sediments, for example, in a petrographic thin section
  196. fabric
    the geometric relationship of the consituents in a petrographic thin section
  197. Harris Matrix
    a method for depicting intricate archaeological stratigraphy in a schematic way
  198. interface
    the term used in the Harris Matrix for surfaces at a site that were places of activity before they were buried - for example, the surface of a pit
  199. petrographic microscope
    a specialized version of a binocular microscope designed for the study of thin sections of rock or pottery
  200. occupation horizon
    the layer or stratum that accumulates during an episode of human habitation and activity
  201. living floor
    the actual places where people lived and carried out their activities
  202. tradition
    the continuity of similar artifcats and design through time
  203. horizon
    layer or assemblage associated with geological strata or archaeological contents - usage includes a soil horizon, a cultural horizon; the geographic extent of similar artifacts and design in space
  204. phase
    a particular period in time and space where an assemblage occurs
  205. ope-air sites
    sites on land and uncovered, in contrast to sites in caves or rockshelters
  206. rockshelter
    a shallow cave or overhang, defined by having a width greater than its depth
  207. surface sites
    sites visible on the surface of the ground
  208. nonsite (off-site)
    the areas between archaeological sites where there are occasional traces of human activity in the form of isolated artifacts, features, or other evidence
  209. residential sites
    places of habitation where people live and carry out the everyday activities that sustain life
  210. camp
    a short-term, temporary settlement, usually associated with hunter-gatherers or nomads
  211. hamlet
    a small village with just a handful of houses and a small number of inhabiants
  212. village
    a small residential unit of permanent houses iwht a population of less than a few hundred
  213. town
    larger with a village with internal differentiation in size and location of structure and usually containing one or more public buildings
  214. city
    an urban agglomeration with a population of 10,000 or more, internal differentiation, and distict civic or ceremonial areas within its boundaries
  215. extractive sites
    nonresidential localities where some members of the society obtain food or other resources
  216. shell midden
    a specialized kind of extractive site, a mound made up of large dumps of shell from mussels, oysters, or other species
  217. rock art
    decoration of rock surface by painting, pecking, or engraving
  218. pictographs
    rock art made by the applicaiton of pigment to rock surfaces
  219. petrographs
    rock art made by removing the outer surface of a rock by carving or hammering
  220. landscape
    a humanly modified or perceived area
  221. mound (aka barrows, tumuli)
    a built pile or heap of earth or stones, resembling a very small hill, usually a burial monument
  222. stela
    a stone monument, caved and/or painted with designs and/or inscriptions, common in the Maya region
  223. tell
    an accumulated mound of occupation debris; man-made settlement mounds of earth and trash that accumulate from the decomposition of mudbrick, common in Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe
  224. gravity model
    a concept from geography whereby interaction among settlements is based on size, similar to interaction among planets based on gravity. Bigger communities have made more interaction and influence on smaller communities
  225. site formation
    the processes involved in the creation of archaeological sites
  226. systemic context
    the actual use of artifacts and features in the past or present
  227. archaeological context
    the buried or surface context in which archaeological remains are found; what survives to the present
  228. cultural transformation
    modification of the archaeoloigcal record caused by human activity
  229. natural transformation
    modification of the archaeological record by geological, hydrological, or chemical activity.
  230. slopewash
    gradual movement of sediments from higher to lower ground as a natural process of erosion and deposition
  231. taphonomy
    the study of what happens to a plant or animal between its death and the time it is found as a fossil or archaeological remain
  232. bioturbation
    disturbance of the archaeological record from plant and animal activities such as root growth or animal digging
  233. What makes up the archaeological record
    the preservation and documentation of artifacts

    ecofacts

    features and their context at the archaeological site
  234. ecofacts
    organic remains modified by humans
  235. allows us interpretation of
    form

    function

    technology
  236. ceramic form typological analysis
    overall

    slip

    function

    can infer when not complete
  237. Ceramic functional analysis
    residue

    context
  238. ceramic residue
    chromotography
  239. ceramic context
    cooking, serving, storing, ritual
  240. ceramic trade
    trade connections
  241. Ceramic technological anaylisis
    source

    manufacture techniques

    temper added

    firing temp
  242. cube - die
    can alos make inferences about what you can't see
  243. new grange on the winter sostice
    built around 3200 bc

    above enterance there is an opening - light comes through
  244. The scientific method - a way of thinking
    • 1. define a relevent problem
    • 2. establish 1 or more hypothesis - questions with a possible answer - a proposed statement as an explanation
    • 3. Determine the empirical implications
    • 4. collect appropriate data
    • 5. test by comparing data
    • 6. reject, revise and/or retest as necessary
  245. archaology is collective
    can't do it alone
  246. scientific method in archaeology
    bridging the gap between info we recover and the questions we seek to ask

    It's an argument by ennumeration or an accumulation of evidence, rather than by experiements
  247. chokia mound
    natural or man made
  248. moundbilder myths
    did not think it was native americans

    Squier and davis map and record - 1848 - "half civilized nation of Mexico

    Did not text these mounds

    1879 - Powell - test mounds

    1894 - Thomas - Native Americans, but after Europeans arrived - survey and excavation
  249. inductive reasoning
    working from specific observations to a more general hypothesis
  250. deductive reasoning
    reasoning from theory to account for specific observational or experimental results

    If...then
  251. multiple working hypothesis
    constantly modifying
  252. briding arguments
    link observations to people themselves and their life
  253. testability
    can be reporduced

    observed, sometimes cannot be tested, but still science
  254. objectivity
    observe without prejudging or falsifying with preconcieved view of the world
  255. science is not infallible
    • 1. No single right way to do science
    • 2. a scientifica approach cannot guarantee truth
    • 3. finding knowldege - most probable explanation give avalible data - changing
  256. characteristics of science
    • 1. science is empierical and objective
    • 2. Science is systematic and explicity
    • 3. is logical
    • 4. is explanatory and consequently predictive
    • 5. is self-critical and based on testing
    • 6. is public
  257. humanism
    a doctrine attitude or way of live that focuses on human interest and values

    tends to reject a search for universals and stress the importance of individual
  258. culture
    so many definitions

    way we live and see the world

    transmitted by learning
  259. archaeological culture
    group of artifacts found in group at several sites

    people behaved similarly
  260. the main stages of archaeological research
    research design - formulation

    implementation

    data gathering - aquisition

    proccessing and analysis

    interpreting

    publication
  261. research design
    define data set background research

    formulate hypothosis
  262. implementation
    fundraising, team recrutment, permission
  263. data gathering
    field work
  264. processing and analysis
    cleaning, classification, lab
  265. interpreting
    interpretive synthesis
  266. publication
    final report
  267. background research
    litterature, records, previous reports

    SHPO

    ask local archaeologist

    data bases in state museums

    CRM

    talking to the locals

    looking at maps
  268. SHPO
    state historic preservation office
  269. ask local archaeoloigist in Boston
    Ellen Berkland
  270. CRM
    Cultural resource Managment
  271. maps
    • geological
    • soil
    • topo
    • vegetation cover
  272. finding archaeological sites
    found in different ways and there is no single formula

    luck and hard work are major keys

    hardwork - research
  273. fieldwork - what is
    • 1) surveys
    • 2) excavation
  274. surveys
    remote sensing

    subsurface detection

    ground survey
  275. remote sensing
    aerial photographs
  276. subsurface
    GPR
  277. Ground
    walking
  278. recording location
    handheld GPS

    total sation - provenience

    3-D recording

    to access the context
  279. remote sensing
    photographic and geophysical technique

    aerial survey

    satellite images

    SAR
  280. subsurface detection
    • 1)geophysical
    • 2) geochemical prospecting
    • 3) site scale probe
  281. geophysical
    magnemotry

    resistivity

    GPR
  282. geochemical prospecting
    analysis of Phosphorus/Nitrogen
  283. proton procession manetometer
    measure the strength of magnetism between the earth's core and sensor controled by archaeology

    picks up magnetic anomalies
  284. magnetic anomalies produced by
    • 1) thermoremanet
    • 2) induced magnetism
  285. magnetic anomalies associated with
    • 1) thermormeant magnetism
    • 2) induced magnetism
  286. example of thermormeant magnetism
    • eg kilns and hearths
    • foundations, walls made by bricks or magnetic rocks
  287. example of induced magnetism
    • eg. filled archaeological pits
    • grooves and ditches
  288. soil resistivity survey
    monitors the electrical resistance of soils near the surface of an archaeolgical site

    detects buried walls or features by change sin the amount of restance registered by the resistivity meter

    along the grid

    or transects
  289. GPR
    radar pulses

    showing the presence and depth of possible burried features

    very useful if right conditions

    hooked up to GPS
  290. Geophysical Survey at Roman Wroxeter
    • -78 ha - large site
    • -excavations - 1 %
    • -survey
    • -63 ha of magnometer
    • -15 ha electro resistance
    • -5 ha GPR
    • -result: the most extensive plan of a Roman-British civitas
  291. To GIS
    • -digital maps
    • -tabular information
    • -aerial photography
    • -other types of digital data
    • -all connected into a database - allows to analyze as a whole
  292. manetrometry and restivity
    see stuff you can't from the surface

    3-D model

    perform excavation to test

    instead of excavation
  293. review of topics
    spectral imagry - satellite

    radar (satellite and airborn) - new ones - day/night

    geophysics - magnetrometry, conductivinty, resistivity, GPR

    GIS
  294. Aerial photography
    low to ground

    taken constently, easy access

    inexpensive

    see crop marks - are buried features - different color, taller, shorter

    move city based on river course changing

    mouvement of rivers can be detected
  295. false color composites
    use of infrared - see what you can't see with naked eye

    images are not natural colors

    see creations of aluvial fan - sites not on, but around research area
  296. topo map
    shape of landscape

    elevation lines
  297. satallite imagry
    come with coordinates from each pixel

    for unmapped places

    sometimes just mapped from satalite images
  298. 3-D maps
    landscape

    good if unfammilar with area

    lay maps over

    pattern discovery
  299. pattern discovery
    see how relate to landscape and each other - see map or cosmos, can do by hand, but it takes less time
  300. GPS
    mark location with extreem acuracy

    to discover sites and not get lost

    make point if find something
  301. spectral classificaion
    which ones are similar

    different as related to other sites
  302. change detection
    moniter the well being of an area - CRM - very important
  303. RADAR mapping (airsar)
    others work in the light spectrum

    energy imitated by the satellite itself

    2 antenas - 2 points at once
  304. 2 antenas on RADAR
    3-D map of ground - interfermetric radar mapping

    tons of detail

    can zooom in and discover site
  305. x-band
    3 cm wave length
  306. p-band
    85 cm wavelength

    can penetrate foliage down to bedrock
  307. LIDAR
    like a lasar ointer - shot to ground

    exactly elevation

    13 km as the airplane flies - criss cross patter, remove shadow effect - perfect

    6000 km2 in one day
  308. SRTM
    large sections of the earth at small resolution

    imaged the entire globe

    radar 3-D maps

    can go online and download for free

    pixel 90m in width

    USA avalible at 30m - declassified - great for environmental, backdrop for archaeological maps
  309. Ciudad Vieja Project
    integrate

    magnetemetry - burnt clay, lbricks

    EM 38 - send electric puls into ground - recieves signal, how ong for signal to reach, detect stone alignment

    magnetic susceptiability - magnetic sensitivity - less likely to be overwhelmened - earth packed so much it changes
  310. Joya de Ceren
    buried in ash

    completley buried

    GPR - stratigraphy of layers - more versatile
  311. maping with GIS
    computing to get confirmation of patterns

    can quantify

    elite and regular intervals
  312. advantages of remote sensing
    • -noninvasive
    • -relatively nondestructive
    • -can discover some subsurface features
    • -regional patterns
    • -setting limits of sites
    • -allow target excavations
    • -cheeper and faster
  313. disadvantages of remote sensing
    • -difficult to discern patterns
    • -not to discern layers of multi-layer sites (history of occupation)
    • -can be misleading or wrong
    • -the only way to check ground truthing
  314. Subsurface detection
    • 1. geophyical - magnemetry, resistivity detection, GPR
    • 2. Geochemical Prospecting - analysis of phospherous, nitrogen, calcium
    • 3. site scale probing - augering, coring
  315. geochemical prospectin
    • -collect soil samples and analyze
    • -P, N, Ca, C
    • -Higher concentrations indicative of humans (P) and animal occupation (N)
    • -using modern comparative samples and ethnographic analogy
  316. horzontal stratigraphy
    move from side to side
  317. Site scale probing
    core probing

    shovel test
  318. core probing
    • -munsell chart
    • -pointy stick - turn around
    • -interval
    • -at different levels
    • -description of sediment and layer
  319. Shovel test
    used by CRM
  320. surveys can be affected by
    • 1. visibilty
    • 2. obtrussivness
  321. sites
    places where artifacts, ecofacts and features are found in a cluster (concentration)

    function or activity

    length of occupation

    cultural affiliation

    location in landscape
  322. places where artifacts, ecofacts, and features are found in a cluster (concentration)
    camp site of hunter-gatherers, but also stone henge
  323. function or activity
    hunter-gatherers, quarry, religous site
  324. length of occupation
    tell or seasonal
  325. cultural affiliation
    mississippian, vinca
  326. location in landscape
    river valley or cave
  327. archaeological culture
    artifacts inn a general area reflect the people in a group and intereraction

    material remains - artifacts

    features and ecofacts

    behavioral normas for people of the culture
  328. at one point in time you have a lot of cultures
    • or varients of one culture
    • can emphasize the difference
  329. sites
    function or activity - hunters-gatherers, quarry, religious

    length of occupation

    culture
  330. excavations
    can't excavate twice
  331. which site to excavate?
    • 1. those that are endangered
    • 2. well preserved contain new infromation important for construding past human excavation
  332. why excavations
    the main way of collectin archaeolical data in sites

    • a) main aims is to assess context
    • b) assess functional an temperal significance
  333. main aim is to assess context
    • provience 3-D
    • association
    • matrix
  334. assess functional and temperal significance
    for reconstructing past human behavior
  335. matrix
    substrate around artifact
  336. provience
    exact 3-D location of any archaeological object in space
  337. association
    information, what is found near the object
  338. context
    info about provience, matrix, and assocaiton together resulting from behavioral and transformational processes
  339. primary context
    intact postion since its origional deposition
  340. secondary context
    situation has been altered by postdepositional process
  341. What type of excavations
    • a) total coverage
    • b) partial coevage
  342. partial coverage
    sampling
  343. sampling
    arbitrary

    non-arbitrary
  344. radom
    choose how many

    no human bias
  345. stratified random
    take different parts

    how many in each area
  346. systematic
    set every other square or such
  347. stratified unaligned
    not in same place of every square
  348. how do we excavate
    • in layers
    • arbitrary layers
  349. arbitrary layers
    • about shovel depth
    • as soon as get to soil change - go with natural layers
  350. Smithosinal Trinomaial
    • SHPO's adoption
    • unique inventory control system of sites
  351. Why archaeologoists dig square holes?
    methods - penetrating, clearing

    always provience control
  352. all measurments tied into
    site datum - to record
  353. pentrating excavation
    shovel test

    test pit

    trench
  354. shovel test
    30 cm

    CRM, exploritory
  355. Test Pit
    (1 x 1 m)

    most basic, general idea of stratigraphy
  356. trench
    (1 x 2 m)

    horizontal extent of features, large excavations
  357. Clearing excavations
    exposen large areas - slower, but more careful

    leaving bulks for stratigraphy

    strip off areas reveal plan of buildings

    decapage or pealing back units
  358. decapage
    peeling back units
  359. archaeological geology
    the application of geological principles and techniques to the solution of archaeological problems
  360. large/regional context
    >102 km2
  361. Meso scale
    ~ 10 to 102 km2
  362. microscale - microstratigraphy
    ~ cm
  363. human activities
    where activities are more intense
  364. raw materials
    archaeometry
  365. environment and landscape evolution
    • roman terracing
    • reconstructing bay around troy
  366. site formation
    • depositional process
    • post depositional process
  367. depositional process
    anthropogenic

    syndepositional geogenic
  368. post deposional process
    anthropogenic

    geogenic
  369. sedimentology in anthropogenic context
    identification of the components

    origin of the components

    transport processes

    deposition processes
  370. disciplines within geoarchaeology
    remote sensing

    geophysics

    oceanogrpahy and climatology

    glaciology

    sedimentology

    soil science

    geomorphology

    minerology, geochemistry, and petrology
  371. remote sensing
    air photos

    maps - geoogy, soils, vegitation, topo
  372. geophyics
    magnetometry

    electric resistivity

    GPR
  373. Oceanography and climatology
    marine isotope record

    climates
  374. glaciology
    glaciation

    glacier
  375. soil scienc
    soil formation and physical, chemcial, and biological modification
  376. geomorphology
    phical landscape formation
  377. mineralology, geochemistry, and Petrology
    mineral - provience, activities, conservation
  378. uniformitarianism
    the same natural laws and processes that opperate in the universe now, have always operated in the universein the past are at work now
  379. mineral formation
    solid transformation - plagioclase

    temp
  380. igneious rocks
    course or fine grained
  381. corse igneous rocks
    phaneritic
  382. fine ignous rocks
    aphanitic
  383. phaneritic
    cooled slowly

    intrusive
  384. aphanitic
    cooled quick

    extrusive
  385. classification
    mineral fine or course grained
  386. pyroclastic sediments
    • glass
    • fragments of various size
  387. sedimentary
    lake, alluvial fan, shelf, marine environment - can tell where formed

    close to shore - sandstone
  388. flint vs. limestone
    • calcium carbonate - cocolithophores
    • silica - diatoms
    • die and reach the floor
  389. below 5000 m
    silica
  390. above 5000m
    carbonate
  391. visible grains and clay sized grains
    siliciclastic - grain size, conglomerate, breccia
  392. in solution
    chemical vs biochemical

    carbonate rock
  393. metamorphism
    high tmep - high pressure

    contact

    burial

    fault
  394. sedimentology
    • sediments
    • those materials deposited at the earth's surface under low temp and pressure
    • river delta
    • flood plains
    • glacial environment
    • alluvial fans
    • aelian environment
    • shoreline environment
  395. sediment types
    • grading
    • graded bedding
    • crossbedding
    • ripple marks
    • mudcrack
  396. grading
    size and organizaiton

    normal inverse ungraded
  397. normal grading
    big on bottom, small on tope
  398. invers gradign
    small on top, big on bottom
  399. ungraded
    all around high energy
  400. cross beding
    • sand dunes - wind - sand
    • water current - indication of water
  401. ripple marks
    near the shore
  402. mud cracks
    clay, drey and wet, swelling
  403. regolith and soil formation
    pedality = soil development - single seperate agragests when well devleoped
  404. description
    • field properties
    • lab analysis - texture, mineraology, pH, OM
  405. A horizon
  406. B horizon
    red
  407. C horizon
    similar to color underneath
  408. field
    • color
    • structure
    • boundries
    • consistance
    • stickyness
    • plasticity
  409. lab
    • particle size
    • pH
    • minerology
  410. Soil color
    • indication of soil type and condition
    • indication of certain chemical and physical makeup
  411. boundaries
    • smooth
    • wavy
    • irregular broken
  412. pH 6 and higher
    any bone would be dissolved
  413. mor
    beneath hearthland and forrest, acid
  414. modeer
    between mor and mull, richer soil
  415. mull
    acid, freely drained soils
  416. sedimentary environment in relation to archaeological sites
    • living sites are here
    • need to understand the probability of finding some sites
  417. sedimetns
    those materials deposited at the earths surface
  418. particle size of sand
    2 mm - .05 mm
  419. particle size of silt
    .05 -.002 mm
  420. particle size of clay
    <.002 mm
  421. why is particle size important?
    indicator of enviornment
  422. how is clay formed
    low energy - stil water lake
  423. texture of sediment
    • percentage of sand/silt/clay
    • not so important unless indicator like paleosoil
  424. sorting of sediments
    • well - same range size - long time and specifica
    • unsorted - many ranges of size - rapid, high energy
  425. roundness of soil
    how round
  426. roughness of soil
    particle surrface
  427. sphericity of soil
    how close to sphere
  428. streams and floodplains
    flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiences occasional flooding
  429. alluvium
    anything deposited by water - non-marine, not underwater
  430. Colluvium
    comes down from slope - gravity
  431. Alluvial fan
    • fan shaped area built up by alluvial deposits
    • usually @ foot of steep slope as it opens onto a valley floor or plain
  432. fluvial terraces
    • terraces around a river
    • really recent- human remains
  433. Meander errosion
    • cutbank
    • pointbar
  434. cutbank
    steep and erroded
  435. pointbar
    low and deposits - lateral accretion
  436. oxbow lake formation
    • flood cut off along neck
    • stranded meander
  437. types of weathering
    chemical and mechanical
  438. eluvation
    • leech
    • move downward

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