Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry
2010-09-28 20:28:59
Organic Chemistry Chemistry terms glossary

Chapters 1-4 Organic Chemistry 7th ed. Mc Murry
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  1. Bond angle
    Angle formed between 2 adjacent bonds.
  2. Bond length
    Equalibrium destance between the nucliei of 2 bonding atoms.
  3. Lone Pair electrons
    electrons not used for bonding
  4. Pi bond
    Covalent bond formed by sideways overlap of 2 atomic orbital.
  5. Sigma bond
    Covalent bond formed by head on overlap of 2 atomic orbitals
  6. sp
    Hybrid orbital derived from an s and p orbital (180o)

    Hybrid orbital derived from an s and 2 p orbital (120o)

    Hybrid orbital derived from an s and 3 p orbital (109o)
  7. Dipole moment
    measure of net polarity of a molecule
  8. Electronegativity
    Ablility of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond
  9. Formal charge
    difference in the number of e- owned by an atom in a molecule and by the same atom in its elemental state.
  10. Lewis acid
    Substance w/ a vacant low energy orbital that can accept an electron pair from a base.
  11. Lewis acid
    Substance that can donate an electron pair to an acid.
  12. Pair Covalent bond
    Covalent bond w/ a unsymetrical e- distribution between atoms.
  13. Alkane
    compound of only C-H with a single bond.
  14. Alkyl group
    Partial structure that remains after removing H from an alkane.
  15. Branched chain alkane
    Branch chain of C-H single bond atoms.
  16. Conformation
    3D shape of a molecule, frozen bond rotation
  17. Conformers
    rotomers, Conformational isomers
  18. Constitutional isomers
    structural, isomers that have their atoms connected in different order.
  19. Eclipsed conformation
    C bond substituents that are parallel parts of a C-C molecule.
  20. Fuctional group
    Atom or group of atoms that is part of a larger molecule and that has a characteristic reactivity.
  21. Hydrocarbon
    Compound that contains only C-H
  22. Isomers
    Compounds w/ the same formula but different structure.
  23. Newman Projection
    Means of indicating stereochemical relationships between substituent groups.
  24. R group
    General abbreviation for an organic paticle sturcture.
  25. Saturated
    Molecule w/ only a single bond (alkanes)
  26. Staggered conformation
    3D arrangment of atoms of a C-C bond when the bonds on one carbon bisect the angle of the 2nd carbon.
  27. Stereochemistry
    Branch chemistry concerned w/ 3D
  28. Steric Strain
    (crowding) Strain on a molecule when 2 groups are too close and try to occupy the same space.
  29. Substituent
    Atom or group of atoms substituted in place of an H atom on the parent Hydrocarbon chain.
  30. Torsional strain (eclipse)
    Strain in a molecule caused by electron repulsion between eclipse bonds.
  31. Alicyclic (cycloalkane/ cycloalkene)
    An aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon.
  32. Angle strain
    Strain induced when a molecule bond angle is deformed from it's ideal value.
  33. Axial position (on cyclohexane ring)
    Bond to a chair-cylcohexane that lies along the rings axis perpendicular to the plane of the ring.
  34. Boat (twist boat)
    • Conformation of cyclohexane that resembles a boat.
    • (less stable than chair due to eclipse interactions)
  35. Chair
    • Conformation of cyclohexane that resembles a chair,
    • (more stable than, lowest energy conformation)
  36. Cis / Trans
    Stereoisomers that differ in their stereochemistry about a double bond or ring.
  37. Conformational analysis
    Means of assesing the energy of a substituted cycloalkane by total of it's steric interactions of the molecule.
  38. 1,3 diaxial intersection
    Strain energy caused by steric interaction between axial groups 3 carbon atoms apart in chair cyclohexane.
  39. Ring Flip (cyclohexane)
    Conversion of chair formation making axial substituents into equitorial substituents.
  40. Stereoisomers
    Atoms connected in the same order but different 3D arrangments.