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Organic Chemistry Chemistry terms glossary
Chapters 1-4 Organic Chemistry 7th ed. Mc Murry
Angle formed between 2 adjacent bonds.
Equalibrium destance between the nucliei of 2 bonding atoms.
Lone Pair electrons
electrons not used for bonding
Covalent bond formed by sideways overlap of 2 atomic orbital.
Covalent bond formed by head on overlap of 2 atomic orbitals
Hybrid orbital derived from an s and p orbital (180
Hybrid orbital derived from an s and 2 p orbital (120
Hybrid orbital derived from an s and 3 p orbital (109
measure of net polarity of a molecule
Ablility of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond
difference in the number of e- owned by an atom in a molecule and by the same atom in its elemental state.
Substance w/ a vacant low energy orbital that can accept an electron pair from a base.
Substance that can donate an electron pair to an acid.
Pair Covalent bond
Covalent bond w/ a unsymetrical e- distribution between atoms.
compound of only C-H with a single bond.
Partial structure that remains after removing H from an alkane.
Branched chain alkane
Branch chain of C-H single bond atoms.
3D shape of a molecule, frozen bond rotation
rotomers, Conformational isomers
structural, isomers that have their atoms connected in different order.
C bond substituents that are parallel parts of a C-C molecule.
Atom or group of atoms that is part of a larger molecule and that has a characteristic reactivity.
Compound that contains only C-H
Compounds w/ the same formula but different structure.
Means of indicating stereochemical relationships between substituent groups.
General abbreviation for an organic paticle sturcture.
Molecule w/ only a single bond (alkanes)
3D arrangment of atoms of a C-C bond when the bonds on one carbon bisect the angle of the 2nd carbon.
Branch chemistry concerned w/ 3D
(crowding) Strain on a molecule when 2 groups are too close and try to occupy the same space.
Atom or group of atoms substituted in place of an H atom on the parent Hydrocarbon chain.
Torsional strain (eclipse)
Strain in a molecule caused by electron repulsion between eclipse bonds.
Alicyclic (cycloalkane/ cycloalkene)
An aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon.
Strain induced when a molecule bond angle is deformed from it's ideal value.
Axial position (on cyclohexane ring)
Bond to a chair-cylcohexane that lies along the rings axis perpendicular to the plane of the ring.
Boat (twist boat)
Conformation of cyclohexane that resembles a boat.
(less stable than chair due to eclipse interactions)
Conformation of cyclohexane that resembles a chair,
(more stable than, lowest energy conformation)
Cis / Trans
Stereoisomers that differ in their stereochemistry about a double bond or ring.
Means of assesing the energy of a substituted cycloalkane by total of it's steric interactions of the molecule.
1,3 diaxial intersection
Strain energy caused by steric interaction between axial groups 3 carbon atoms apart in chair cyclohexane.
Ring Flip (cyclohexane)
Conversion of chair formation making axial substituents into equitorial substituents.
Atoms connected in the same order but different 3D arrangments.