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2011-08-20 17:19:40

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  1. synecdoche (receiving from another)
    • substitution of part for whole or whole for part; special for general or general for special
    • ten sail (ships)
    • Croesus (rich man)
    • All hands (sailors) on deck
    • plastic (credit card)
    • wheels (car)
  2. metonymy (change of name)
    • substitution of cause for effect, proper name for one of its qualities
    • scepter for sovereignty
    • Washington for federal government, John Hancock for signature
    • ear for attention,
    • pen mightier than the sword
  3. homologous
    similar origins, different function (wing of bird for flight, leg of horse for walking)
  4. analogous
    different origins, similar function (wing of bird, wing of bee, both for flight)
  5. myriad
    ten thousand
  6. portmanteau
    brunch, smog, frenemy
  7. Schadenfreude
    enjoying the misery of others
  8. begging the question
    logical fallacy in which the proof merely restates the premise, e.g. "She is unattractive because she is ugly"
  9. euphemism treadmill
    lame-crippled-handicapped-disabled-physically challenged-differently able
  10. misanthropic
    hating humanity
  11. specificity
    state of particularity
  12. palingenesis
    rebirth, regeneration (palin = again)
  13. mondegreen
    (coined S. Wright, 1954)
    • word or phrase resulting from misinterpretation of what was heard
    • "Ye Highlands and ye Lowlands,
    • Oh, where hae ye been?
    • They hae slain the Earl O' Moray,
    • "and laid him on the green" (Lady Mondegreen)
    • "the girl with colitis goes by"
    • "If you see Kay/Tell him he may/See you in tea/Tell him from me" (Ulysses)
  14. beyond the pale
    • palo: paling fence
    • impale
  15. jury-rigged
    nautical derivation: jury-mast, a temporary mast to replace broken or missing one
  16. jerry-built
    slightly, unsubstantially, defectively built
  17. evert
    to turn inside out
  18. avert
    to turn aside, prevent
  19. juggernaut
    any large, overpowering, destructive force or object: from Jagannath, crude idol form of Krishna
  20. jump the shark
    • the point at which a popular television show has gone past its peak and has resorted to stunt programming
    • refers to episode of Happy Days
  21. American beer
    making love in a canoe
  22. mojo
  23. hornswoggle
    swindle, cheat
  24. boondoggle
    • product of simple manual skill made by camper or scout
    • work of little or no value done merely to keep or look busy
    • 1935, said to have been coined by R.H. Link, scoutmaster
    • popularized during the NewDeal as a contemptuous word for make-work
    • projects for the unemployed. Said to have been a pioneer word for "gadget."
  25. gadget
    • 1886, gadjet (but said to date back to 1850s)
    • sailors' slang word for any small mechanical thing or part of a ship
    • for which they lacked, or forgot, a name
    • perhaps from Fr. gâchette "catchpiece of a mechanism"
    • dim. of gâche "staple of a lock"
  26. frightful
    causing fright or fear
  27. fearsome
    • frightful, causing fear or respect;
    • but also full of fear, timid
  28. bespeak
    ask, reserve in advance; indicate; foretell
  29. braggadocio
    Braggadocchio, Spenser Faeirie Queene (1590)
  30. belie
    • contradict, misrepresent, e.g.
    • "The newspaper belied the facts."
  31. give the lie
    • demonstrate to be false, e.g.
    • "The evidence gives the lie to his testimony."
  32. cabala, cabbala, kabala, kabbala
    • system of esoteric theosophy and theurgy developed by rabbis, reaching its peak about the 12th and 13th centuries,
    • and influencing certain medieval and Renaissance Christian thinkers. It was based on a mystical method of interpreting Scripture by which initiates claimed to penetrate sacredmysteries. Among its central doctrines: all creation is an emanation from the Deity and the soul exists from eternity.
  33. cabal
    • 1.a small group of secret plotters, as against a government or person in authority
    • 2.the plots and schemes of such a group; intrigue. 3.a clique, as in artistic, literary, or theatrical circles.
    • 1520s, "mystical interpretation of the Old Testament,"
    • later"society, small group meeting privately" (1660s),
    • from Fr. cabal ,in both senses, from M.L. cabbala.
    • Popularized inEnglish 1673 as an acronym for five intriguing ministers of
    • CharlesII (Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauderdale),
    • which gave the word its sinister connotations.
  34. coterie
    • a small exclusive group of friends or people with common interests; clique
    • (1738, from Fr., originally an organization of peasants holding land from a feudal lord, from cotier "tenant of a cotter", cottager)
    • cf. cabal, cadre
  35. cadre
    • 1.the nucleus of trained professional servicemen forming the basis for the training of new units or other military expansion 2.a basic unit or structure, esp of specialists or experts; nucleus;core 3.a group of revolutionaries or other political activists, esp when taking part in military or terrorist activities
    • [1830, from Fr. cadre , lit. "a frame of a picture" (16c.), so, "a detachment forming the skeleton of a regiment" (1851), from It. quadro, from L. quadrum "a square" (see quadrille). The communist sense is from 1930.]
  36. syncretism
    the attempt to reconcile contrary beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought
  37. ave atque vale
    salutations and farewell
  38. erstwhile
    former, formerly
  39. anodyne
    anything that relieves distress or pain
  40. 1. acronym
    2. anagram
    3. palindrome
    • 1. UTET
    • 3. ANNA
  41. 1. flout

    2. flaunt
    1. scoff, mock, show disdain [ME flauten, to play the flute]

    2. display boldly or conspicuously
  42. picco

    andare a picco
    peak, summit

    founder, sink [inabbissarsi, a ship going down "a picco"]
  43. pun
    • homophonic: "Atheism is a non-prophet institution" - G. Carlin
    • recursive: "A Freudian slip is when you say one thing but mean your mother"
  44. pundit
    from pandit, Brahman learned in Sanskrit, esp. Hindu religion, philosophy, or law
  45. tendencious
    displaying a definite tendency, bias, or purpose
  46. draconian
    • rigorous, harsh;
    • from laws of Draco
  47. 1. philistine
    2. pharisaical
    • 1. insensitive, uninformed, materialistic
    • 2. self-righteous, hypocritical, sanctimonious
  48. bellwether
    leader, pacesetter, front-runner, trailbrazer
  49. shibboleth
    catchword, slogan; peculiarity of dress, pronunciation, comportment, etc. as distinction of a particular class or set of persons
  50. exiguous
  51. obliquity
    • divergence from moral conduct, rectitude, etc.; immorality,dishonesty, or the like; immorality,dishonesty, or the like.immorality,dishonesty, or the like. immorality, dishonesty, or the like
    • mental perversity
    • a confusing or obscure statement or passage of writing, esp. if deliberately so
  52. dragoon
    oppress, coerce
  53. gainsay
    • again - say
    • oppose, deny, dispute
  54. parchment
    • paper of Pergamum
    • from goats, sheep, etc.
  55. vellum
    • (veal)
    • from calf, lamb, kid
  56. assuage
    appease, relieve, soothe, mitigate, calm
  57. epiphany
    manifestation of supernatural or divine reality; moment of great or sudden revelation
  58. apotheosis
    deification, glorification
  59. interloper
    one who intrudes in some region or field of trade without qualification or license
  60. 1. inveigle (invogliare)
    2. inveigh
    • 1. entice, beguile
    • protest vehemently, rail
  61. earmark
    • originally a cut or mark in the ear of sheep and cattle, serving as a sign of
    • ownership; first recorded 1570s in figurative sense.
  62. adumbrate
    to outline; to foreshadow; to darken
  63. vis-à-vis
    face to face
  64. solecism
    • incorrect grammatical construction; impropriety; breach of etiquette
    • (You don't have to be perfect to be a perfect parent--?)
  65. solipsism
    theory that the self is the only thing that can be known and verified
  66. syllogism
    • deductive logic
    • A=B B=C A=C
  67. hew
    • 1. chop, sever; but also
    • 2. uphold, conform
  68. nonplussed
    non+plus = no further: perplexed
  69. recombinant
    of or resulting from new combinations
  70. luxated
  71. 1. interpolate
    2. extrapolate
    • 1. interject
    • 2. infer
  72. nostrum
    snake oil
  73. meme
    coined by Dawkins in 1976, replicating idea through imitation, as a unit of cultural evolution
  74. ampersand
    and per se "and" - referring to ligature for "et" at the end of the alphabet
  75. hermeneutics
    science of interpretation
  76. exegesis
    explanation, interpretation
  77. gainsay
    dispute, oppose
  78. avert
    turn away, avoid
  79. palimpsest
    parchment scraped clean of its original scripture and used again
  80. ochlocracy
    mob rule, government by the populace
  81. roman à clef
    • novel with a key - fiction "hiding" reality
    • e.g., Divina commedia
  82. Bildungsroman
    novel of formation; of growth from childhood to maturity
  83. brickbat
    unkind remark, caustic criticism
  84. 1. extrapolate
    2. interpolate
    • 1. infer
    • 2. insert, interpose
  85. afflatus
    divine inspiration
  86. iterate
  87. 1. depraved
    2. deprived
    • 1. corrupt, wicked, perverted
    • 2. lacking in adequate supply
  88. 1. bereft
    2. bereaved
    • 1. deprived
    • 2. deprived by death
  89. stroppy