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- Stage 1: Dualism, Right vs. Wrong; Confirmation bias
- Stage 2: Relativism, Reluctance to judge; all opinions are equally valid
- Stage 3: Commitment, Relying on evidence and experience for best decision
Characteristic of a good critical thinker.
- 1. Analytical skills: recognize and evaluate arguments, discards faulty reasoning.
- 2. Effective Communication: listening, speaking, and writing.
- 3. Research and Inquiry Skills: gathering nd applying all available evidence.
- 4. Flexibility and Tolerance for Ambuigity
- 5. Open-minded Skepticism: overcoming personal prejudices. (skeptic is a person who questions things, cynic questions things but froma negative perspective, hopeful skeptics are open to new information, questions things with a positive attitude.)
- 6. Creative Problem Solving: attempting to forsee all possiblities.
- 7. Attentive, Mindful, and Curious: a willingness to consider multiple perspective,
- 8. Collaborative Learning: considers the reaction of the "other side."
The 3 tier model of thinking
- Experience: includes firsthand experience as well information or empirical facts that we receive fro other sources.
- Interpretation: involves trying to make sense of our experience.
- Analysis: requires that we critically examine our interpretations of an experience.
Barriers to Critical Thinking
- Resistance: the use of defense mechanisms that interferes with thinking critically
- Example: Avoidance, Anger, Cliches, Denial, Ignorance, Conformity, Struggling, Distractions
- Narrow Mindeness: the inability to accept new or contrary information
- Example: Absolutism, Fear of Challenge, Egocentrism, Ethnocentrism, Anthropocentrism
- Rationalization and Doublethink: ignoring competing claims
- Cognitive and Social Dissonance: when new ideas or social behavior directly conflicts with our world view
Types of Language and their functions
- 1. Informative Language: it is either true or false
- 2. Directive Language: used to influence action
- 3. Expressive Language: Communicates feelings/emotions
- 4. Ceremonial Language: formal communication
- 5. Nonverbal Language: communication without words
Types of Definitions
- Stipulative Definition: a new word or a new definition for an existing word
- Lexical Definition: dictionary definition
- Precising Definition: definition to reduce vagueness
- Theoretical: explaining a term's nature
- Operational: standardized measure for use in data collection and interpretation.
- Persuasive Definition: used to influence others