Test 2

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angelina_wallace@att.net
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37673
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Test 2
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2010-09-27 13:16:42
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pharmacology
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test 2
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  1. What is Pharmacology
    • Study of origin, nature, properties, and effects of
    • drugs on the function of living organisms
  2. What is Pharmacotherapeutics?
    ·Therapeutic effects

    ·Toxic effects
  3. What is pharmacokinetics?
    • Defined: all aspects of drug distribution in the body after administration, ie. “what the body
    • does to the drug”:

    Absorption from administration site and factors that impede

    Distribution into body compartments - factors that effect, including protein binding

    Metabolism to active and inactive metabolites

    Elimination of parent drug and metabolites, routes and challenges to drug elimination

    Influences: concentration at site, response, toxicity

    Influences: Pharmacodynamics: “what the drug does to the body”

    Changes in pharmacokinetics due strictly to renal failure usually not well defined.

    The following factors influence drug distribution:

    • Protein binding
    • Two factors determine degree of plasma protein binding:
    • Affinity of drug for plasma protein #of binding sites available






    • nThe following factors influence drug
    • distribution:

    • n1.
    • Protein binding

    • nTwo factors determine degree of plasma
    • protein binding:

    • n1.
    • Affinity of drug for plasma protein

    • n2.
    • # of binding sites available
  4. What is pharmacodynamics?
    • Drug-receptor interaction
    • This is what the drug does to the body
    • At the cellular level:
    • Most drugs exert their effects on the body by
    • interacting with macromolecule “targets” which are usually on the surface or within cells
  5. What is pharmacogenomics?
    • Study of the effects of
    • changes in genetics on pharmacological responses of drugs

    Pharmacodynamic effects

    Pharmacokinetic effects
  6. What is potency?
    • a measure of how much drug is
    • required to elicit a response. P
    • is expressed as the dose that gives 50% of the
    • maximal response (ED50)
  7. Wat is affinity?
    Affinity (tendency to bind to receptor)
  8. What is efficacy?
    Efficacy (ability once bound to initiate change ®effect
  9. What is steady state?
    • it takes 4-5 1/2 lives for drug to reach steady state.
    • so if drug is QD it takes 4-5 days to reach steady state.
  10. Drug Development phase 1
    Absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted
  11. Drug development phase 2
    • small number of healthy volunteers
    • animal studies can continue
  12. drug development phase 3
    • increased number of volunteers and those suffering from condition drug designed to treat
    • these studies must confirm earlier efficacy for FDA approval
  13. drug development phase 4
    • - post marketing trials
    • - can be prescribed
  14. what is therapeutic effect of drug?
    result is desirable and beneficial
  15. that is toxic effect of drug?
    substance is able to cause damage
  16. what are potential targets for drugs?
    • 1. lipids
    • 2. nucleic acids
    • 3. proteins
    • drugs have similar structure to intrinsic substance in the body
  17. What is the therapeutic index?
    the ratio of the doses required for effective treatment of 50% of subjects
  18. What is first pass affect?
    • oral drugs move through the portal vein into the liver
    • before passing into general circulation

    • liquids, suspensions, powders, pill, capsules
    • - absorbed fastest to slowest
  19. What is drug metabolism and what is its goal?
    • it is a chemical change to a different compound called a metabolite.
    • when drugs are metabolized the change is usually an increase in water solubility often
    • accompanied by a decrease in lipid solubility

    goal is to go from lipophylic to hydrophylic
  20. define cytochromes and their relationship to drug metabolism?
    • CYP 450 is the most clinically significant oxidation enzyme. Majority
    • are found in the liver and gut wall and produce a metabolite that will be
    • easily excreted in the urine.
  21. what is an Inducer?
    it increases metabolism, there by decreasing blood levels of a drug
  22. what is an Inhibitor?
    it decreases metabolism, there by increasing the blood level of a drug.

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